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Full text of "Report for the academic year"



Institute 

for ADVANCED STUDY 



REPORT 



FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 



1999 - 2000 



PRINCETON ■ NEW JERSEY 



Institute 

for ADVANCED STUDY 



REPORT 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 
1999 - 2000 



EINSTEIN DRIVE 

PRINCETON • NEW JERSEY ■ 08540-0631 

609-734-8000 

609-924-8399 (Fax) 

www.ias.edu 



Extract from the letter addressed by the Institute's Founders, Louis Bamberger 
and Mrs. Felix Fuld, to the Board of Trustees, dated June 4, 1930. 

Newark, New Jersey. 

h is fundamental in our purpose, and our express desire, that 
in the appointments to the staff and faculty, as well as in the 
admission of workers and students, no account shall be taken, 
directly or indirectly, of race, religion, or sex. We feel strongly 
that the spirit characteristic of America at its noblest, above all 
the pursuit of higher learning, cannot admit of any conditions 
as to personnel other than those designed to promote the objects 
for which this institution is established, and particularly with 
no regard whatever to accidents of race, creed, or sex. 






4 • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 

7 • FOUNDERS, TRUSTEES, AND OFFICERS OF THE BOARD 
AND OF THE CORPORATION 

10 ■ ADMINISTRATION 

12 • PRESENT AND PAST DIRECTORS AND FACULTY 

15 • REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN 

18 • REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

22 • OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR - RECORD OF EVENTS 

27 • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

41 • REPORT OF THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 

FACULTY 

ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 

MEMBERS, VISITORS, AND RESEARCH STAFF 

RECORD OF EVENTS 

59 ■ REPORT OF THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 
FACULTY 

ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 
MEMBERS AND VISITORS 
RECORD OF EVENTS 

75 • REPORT OF THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 
FACULTY 

ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 
MEMBERS AND VISITORS 
RECORD OF EVENTS 

89 ■ REPORT OF THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 
FACULTY 

ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 

MEMBERS, VISITORS, AND RESEARCH STAFF 
RECORD OF EVENTS 

99 • PROGRAM IN THEORETICAL BIOLOGY 

103 • REPORT OF THE INSTITUTE LIBRARIES 

107 ■ INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY/PARK CITY 
MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 

MENTORING PROGRAM FOR WOMEN IN 
MATHEMATICS 

119 • INDEPENDENT AUDITORS' REPORT 



The Institute tor Advanced Stud) was founded in 1930 with a major gift from New 
|ersey businessman and philanthropist Louis Bamberger and his sister, Mrs. Felix 
Fuld, who wished to use their fortunes to make a significant and lasting contribution 
to society. They sought the advice of educator Abraham Flexner, who developed the 
concept ot the Institute as a community of scholars whose primary purpose would he 
the pursuit ot advanced learning and scholarly exploration. The Institute tor 
Advanced Study has sustained its founding principle for seventy years. This com- 
mitment his yielded an unsurpassed record ot definitive scholarship. 

The Institute tills a unique role in postgraduate education and scientific and schol- 
arly research. As "the university to universities," in the words of Trustee Vartan 
Gregorian, the Institute serves all colleges and universities by providing a place 
where scholars can hone their skills and do their hest work, thereby adding substan- 
tially to their ability to contribute as both teachers and scholars to the academic 
institutions where they hase their careers. For young scholars just entering the aca- 
demic world, an opportunity to work at the Institute can set the direction for life- 
long research interests and thereby determine professional careers. The Institute 
provides more mature scholars with the opportunity to take a new direction in their 
research or to complete a major piece of work away from the many obligations and 
distractions ot working life at a contemporary university. In our era, a time when 
pure research and scholarly activities are undervalued, these opportunities are 
ex( eedingly rare. 

The Institute's foremost objective is the advancement ot knowledge and the deepen- 
ing ot understanding across a broad range of the humanities, sciences, and social sci- 
ences. Oik o! the Institute's unique strengths is its small and distinguished perma- 
nent Faculty, well-established scholars whose broad interests and extensive ties to the 
larger academic world are reflected in their own work and also in the guidance and 
direction they provide to the Institute's visiting Members. The Faculty defines the 
major themes and question- which become the focus of each School's seminar- and 
other activities, and the Faculty selects and works closely with visiting Members. 
Small in number and organized in tour Schools (Historical Studies, Mathematics. 
Natural Niciucs, and Social Science), the Faculty and Members can interact with 
other without the departmental and disciplinary barriers found in universities. 

ii I he Institute awards fellowship- to L 80 visiting Members In 'in universities 
and research institutions throughout the world. The Institute's nearly 5,000 former 
Members hold positions oi intellectual and scu'ii titic leadership in the United States 

and abroad. More- than a dozen Nobel laureates have been Institute b.ic ull\ or Mem 
hers, and many more are winners of the W'olt or Mae Arthur prizes. Twenty nine out 
ot forty two Fields Medalists, the Nobel equivalent tor mathematicians, have been 
Institute- b.u uli\ and Members. 

1 1,, Institute does not uuiu- income from tuition ot tees. Resources tor operations 
com< from endowment income, gram- from private foundations and government 
agencies, and gilts from corporations and individuals. 




It seemed to me that the time was ripe for the creation in America of 
an institute in the field of general scholarship and science . . . not a graduate 
school, training men in the known and to some extent in methods of 
research, hut an institute where everyone — faculty and members — took tor 
granted what was known and published, and in their individual ways endeavored 
to advance the frontiers of knowledge." 

— Abraham Flexner, Founding Director 

(1 930-39) of the Institute, Memorandum to the Board 

of Trustees of the Institute for Advanced Study , September 26, 1931 



THE BOARD 



LOUIS BAMBERGER 
CAROLINE BAMBERGER FULD 



JAMES D. WOLFENSOHN 
Chairman of the Board 

LEON LEVY 

Chairman of the Executive Committee 

Vice Chairman of the Board 

President of the Corporation 

ALLEN I. ROWE 
Treasurer 

RAOHEL D. GRAY 
Secretary of the Corporation 



JAMES G. ARTHUR 

University Professor 

Department of Mathematics , University of Toronto 

Ontario, Canada 

RICHARD B. BLACK 

Chairman, ECRM Incorporated 

Tewksbury, Massachusetts 

MICHAEL R. BLOOMBERG 

Preskient and Founder, Bloomberg 

New York, New York 

MARTIN A. CHOOLJIAN 

President , CH Capital Corporation 

Princeton, New Jersey 

ANNE d'HARNONCOURT 

The George D. Widener Director and CEO 

Philadelphia Museum of Art 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

MARIO DRAGHI 

Director General of the Treasury 

Ministry of the Italian Treasury 

Rome, Italy 



VARTAN GREGORIAN 

President, Carnegie Corporation of New York 

New York, New York 

PHILLir A GRIFFITHS 

Director, Institute for Advanced Study 

Princeton, New Jersey 

TORU HASHrMOTO 

Chairman, The Fuji Bank, Limited 

Tokyo , japan 

JON M. HUNTSMAN, Jr. 

Vice Chairman, Huntsman 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

PETER R. KANN 

Chairman and CEO, Dow Jones & Company, Inc. 

New York, New York 

HELENE L. KAPLAN 

Of Counsel 

Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom 

New York, New York 

1MMANUEL KOHN 

Senior Partner and Chairman of the Executive Committee 

Cahill Gordon & Reindel 

New York, New York 

MARIE-JOSEE KRAV1S 

Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute, Inc. 

Washington, DC 

MARTIN L. LEIBOW1TZ 

Vice Chairman and Chief Investment Offict i 

TIAA-CREF 

New York, New York 

LEON LEVY 
Odyssey Partners, L.P. 
New York, New York 

DAVID K.P. LI 

Chairman and Chief Executive , The Bank of East Asia, Limited 

Hong k'ong 

DAVID F. MARQUARDT 

Managing Partner, August Capital 

Menlo Park, California 

ROBERT B. MENSCHEL 

Goldman Sachs & Company 

New York, New York 



NATHAN P. MYHRVOLD 

Co-President, Intellectual Ventures 

Bellevue, Washington 

MARTIN J. REES 

Royal Society Research Professor 

Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge 

Cambridge , United Kingdom 

JAMES J. SCHIRO 

Chief Executive Officer, PricewaterhouseCoopers 

New York, New York 

RONALDO H. SCHMITZ 

Member of the Board of Managing Directors 

Deutsche Bank AG 

Frankfurt, Germany 

CHARLES SIMONYI 

Distinguished Engineer, Microsoft Corporation 

Redmond, Washington 

MICHEL L. VAILLAUD 
New York, New York 

LADISLAUS von HOFFMANN 

President, Omicron Investments, Inc. 

Washington, DC 

MARIANA v.N. WHITMAN 

Professor, Business Administration and Public Policy 

University of Michigan 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

JAMES D. WOLFENSOHN 

President, The World Bank 

Washington, DC 

GAVIN WRIGHT 

The William Robertson Coe Professor in American Economic History 

Stanford University 

Stanford, California 

BRIAN F. WRUBLE 

Special Limited Partner, Odyssey Investment Partners 

New York, New York 

MORTIMER B. ZUCKERMAN 

Chairman and Editor-in-Chief 

U.S. News & World Report 

New York, New York 

CHARLES L. BROWN RALPH E. HANSMANN 

THEODORE L. CROSS HAMISH MAXWELL 

JOSEPH L. DOOB MARTIN E. SEGAL 

SIDNEY D. DRELL DONALD B. STRAUS 

WILFRIED GUTH FRANK E. TAPLIN, Jr. 






PHILLIP A. GRIFFITHS 
Director 

ALLEN I. ROWE 
Associate Director aM Treasurer 

RACHEL D. GRAY 
Associate Director and Secretary of the Corporation 

JAMES H. BARBOUR, Jr. 
Manager of Administration 

ROBERTA B. GERNHARDT 
Manager of Human Resources 

ARLEN K. HASTINGS 
Executive Assistant to the Director 

PAMELA R. HUGHES 
Development Officer 

ANNE B. HUMES 
Institutional Advancement Officer 

CATHERINE E. JORDAN 
Administrator, IAS/Park City Mathematics Institute 

JULIANNE KMIEC 
Member Services Coordinator 

MARY J. MAZZA 
Comptroller 

DONNE PETITO 
Development Associate 

MICHEL REYMOND 

CheffManager, Dining Hall 

GEORGIA WHIDDEN 
Public Affairs Officer 



10 



LIBR 

MOMOTA GANGUL1 
Librarian, Mathematics and Natural Sciences 

MARCIA TUCKER 

Librarian, Historical Studies and Social Science 

(also Coordinator of Information Access for Computing, Telecommunications 

and Networking Administration) 



MARY JANE HAYES 
Administrative Officer, School of Mathematics 

DEBORAH KOEHLER 
Administrative Officer, School of Social Science 

MICHELLE SAGE 
Administrative Officer, School of Natural Sciences 

MARIAN GALLAGHER ZELAZNY 
Administrative Officer, School of Historical Studies 



JONATHAN PEELE 
PC Systems Manager 

DAVID SAXE 
Senior Technologist 

THOMAS HOWARD UPHILL 
Senior UNIX Systems Administrator, School of Mathematics 

EDNA WIDGERSON 
Computer Manager, School of Natural Sciences 



HARRY WOOLF 
ROBERT TAUB 



11 



ABRAHAM FLEXNER ■ FRANK AYDELOTTE 

J. ROBERT OITI Nl 11 IM1 R CARL KAYSEN ■ HARRY WOOLF 

MARVIN I ER ■ PHILLIP A. GRIFFITHS 



STEPHEN L. ADLER • JAMES W. ALEXANDER 

ANDREW E. Z. ALR H I )] MICHAEL F. ATIYAH 

JOHN N. BAHCALL • ARNE K. A. BEURLING 

ENRICO BOMBIERI • ARMAND BOREL • JEAN BOURGAIN 

GLEN W. BOWERSOCK • LUIS A. CAFFARELL1 

HAROLD E CHERNISS ■ MARSHALL CLAGETT 

< INSTABLE ■ PATRICIA CRONE ■ ROGER F. DAM EN 

PIERRE DELIGNE ■ FREEMAN J. DYSON ■ EDWARD M. EARLE 

ALBERT EINSTEIN ■ JOHN H. ELLIOTT ■ CLIFFORD GEERTZ 

FELIX GILBERT • JAMES F. GILLIAM • Kl K 1 GOl >H 

HETTY GOLDMAN OLEG GRABAR ■ CHRISTIAN HAB1CHT 

HARISH-CHANDRA • ERNST HERZFELD ■ ALBERTO. HIRSCHMAN 

LARS V. HORMANDER PIET HUT • ERNST H. KANTOROWICZ 

GEORGE F. KENNAN • ROBERT P. LANGI.ANDS IRVING LAVIN 

T. D. LEE ■ ELIAS A. LOWE • ROBERT D. MacPHERSON 

JACK F. MATLOCK, Jr. MILLARD MEISS • BENJAMIN D. MERITT 

JOHN W. M1LNOR DAVID MITRANY • DEANE MONTGOMERY 

MARSTON MORSE ■ ABRAI I \M PAIS ERWIN PANOFSIO 

PETER PARET • TULLIO E. REGGE ■ W1NFIELD W. RIEaER 

MARSHALL N. ROSENBLUTH ■ JOAN WALLACH SCOTT 

NATHAN SEIBERG • ATLE SELBERG KENNETH M. SETTON 

CARL L. SIEGEL Tl [( )MAS SPENCER • WALTER W. STEWART 

BENGI > , D STROMGREN HOMER \ THOMPSON 

■ VLDVEBLEN |OHN VON NEUMANN • HEINRICH VON STADEN 
Mh 1 1 ALL WALZER ■ ROBERT B. WARREN ANDRfi WEIL ■ HERMANN WE\ I 

Ml IRTON will II HASSLER WHITNEY- AVI WIGDERSON 

■ \\ ill /Ik EDWARD WITTEN- ERNEST LLEWELLYN WOODWARD 

i \m. SHING rUNGYAl 



12 





i^^ 








* > ■•■•' •*_ 

i • 

i 



To work in the Institute's research community seems to me a uniquely valuable 
opportunity: the power of the Institute to refresh and recreate one as a 
researcher is strong . . . That the Institute makes research a priority and all its 
structures are seriously directed to allowing one to work permits a kind of attentiveness 
and concentration that is elsewhere usually frayed by conflicting demands and 
pressures. Even a short stay in an institution so committed to research priorities and 
serious freedom of thought creates a kind of seedbank of new thought and refreshed 
vision as a researcher which will continue to be productive long after one has left." 

— Member, School of Historical Studies 



Fuld Holi as reflected in a comer uinaW of tiie Historical Studies/Social Science Library. 



The Institute concluded this past year — its 70 th — in very good health academically and 
financially, and without question as strongly committed to its fundamental purpose as it 
was in 1930. "The primary purpose is the pursuit of advanced learning and exploration 
in fields of pure science and high scholarship," commented Abraham Flexner, the Insti- 
tute's first Director, and his words accurately describe the focus of this institution today. 

A highlight of the year past was the naming of Simonyi Hall, home of the School of 
Mathematics, one of the Institute's four Schools, in honor of Institute Trustee Charles 
Simonyi. Trustee Martin Leibowitz's remarks on that occasion, although specifically 
about the School of Mathematics, seem to me to capture the essence of the entire Insti- 
tute for Advanced Study. Dr. Leibowitz mentioned, in part, the beauty of the research 
work itself, the unanticipated applications that sometimes occur many years in the future, 
and the outreach to other fields that is so fruitful. 

"It has been written," Dr. Leibowitz said, "that pure mathematics aspires to be the ulti- 
mate flowering of the human mind - beautiful words that were undoubtably penned by 
some mathematician. But the impurity of pragmatism often infects even the purest of 
mathematicians, and we know that much practical value has been derived from mathe- 
matical pursuits that may have at first seemed to have only a tangential relation to the 
real world. In the history of the Institute, we have witnessed tremendous payoffs in such 
areas as game theory and in the development of the early seeds of computer science. 

"Mathematics has outreach to other scientific fields, such as the Deligne/Witten program 
in string theory and the interaction with the new initiative in theoretical biology. In 
addition, the School has just begun a major new emphasis in the field of computer 
science under the leadership of Professor Avi Wigderson. 

"The Institute can be extremely proud of its high standing in the world of mathematics. 
The key has been the excellence of its faculty and the very special environment that the 
Institute provides. Simply put, we would like to think that there is no better place for 
the best scientists and scholars in the world to ply their craft." 

As a small institution, the Institute recognizes that it must identify specific areas in which 
it can serve as a center of scholarship and offer something of substantial value to a field. 
The Institute has also created ways to alter its traditional orientation in some fields and 
adopt a more global and culturally diverse perspective, as has happened in the School of 
Historical Studies. In a variety of ways — through looking at the classical cultures from 
new perspectives, the introduction of study of the Islamic field, the inclusion of Members 
from the Central Asian republics, and explorations in East Asian studies — the School 
is complementing its distinguished scholarship in Western studies with other growth 
areas of research. 

The School of Social Science has traditionally focused on interdisciplinary inquiry and 
interpretive understanding in the social sciences. Through the creation of the Albert O. 
Hlrschman Chair in Economics, the School will be involved with possibilities emerging 
in the field of economics, and will look to the first Hirschman Professor, Eric Maskin, to 
integrate economics with other fields. Institute Trustees Ronaldo Schmitz and Wilfried 



[5 



I 1TUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY 



l ruth recognized the importance of the Faculty's idea to create a chair that would allow 
the renewed presence of economics in the School of Social Science. The Albert O. 
Hirschman Chair was created with leadership gifts from Deutsche Bank, Richard B. 
Fisher, Giorgio and Elly Petronio, The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation, and Daniel 
and loanna Rose, together with the support of past Members of the School of Social Sci- 
ither Trustees and Friends of the Institute, and friends of Albert and Sarah 
1 lirschman. We anticipate that this will make a major difference to the Institute. 

The W.M. Keck Foundation this year awarded the School of Natural Sciences a challenge 
grant in support of a program in which scientists grapple with some of the puzzles of 
modern observational astronomy using tools of modern theoretical physics. The Institute 
is uniquely suited to this sort of program. First, research in this kind of forefront science 
requires individuals with a deep immersion in astrophysics as well as outstanding people- 
in theoretical physics. The Institute Faculty is composed of the rare individuals who can 
lead such research. Second, the Institute provides a venue for sustained research, both 
individual and collaborative, that contributes to the intellectual enrichment of entire 
fields. This is a rare opportunity for outstanding young scientists to focus on research in 
an exciting area of science tor a continuous period of time. 

Other foundations and corporations have also provided very important program support 
for areas such as theoretical biology, theoretical computer science, and the IAS/Park City 
Mathematics Institute. Datek Online ditected its fitst-ever corporate gift to the Institute, 
and generous grants were received also from the David &. Lucile Packatd Foundation, 
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, RGK Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, J. Seward 
Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts, The Seavet Institute, the Florence Gould Foundation, 
( Seraldine R. Dodge Foundation, Toyota USA Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, The 
Starr Foundation, The Spencer Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the John D. and 
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and the Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation. The 
Clay Mathematics Institute operated programs in conjunction with the Institute's School 
ot Mathematics. To each of these and to all foundations and corporations who so kindly 
supported the work oi the Institute, 1 extend our appreciation. 

Five years ago Trustee 1 [amish Maxwell drew the attention of the Board to the impor- 
tance ol attracting new funds to the endowment. Since then, with the leadership of 
Michael Bloomberg and Vartan Gregorian and a remarkable team ettort involving the 
Board and Faculty, the Institute has met some critical development goals. In addition to 
Trustees mentioned elsewhere in my report, I especially want to note the support this vear 
of Richard Black, Martin Chooljian, Theodore Cross, Ralph Hansmann, lmmanuel 
Kohn, Martin Leibowitz, Robert Menschel, Ladislaus von Hoffmann, Brian Wruble, and 
Mortimei Zuc kerman. 

W i ire immensely grateful tor each and every gift to the Institute, and in this regard I 
particularly want to thank the members of the Assoi iation of Members of the Institute 
i,.t Advanced Study (AMIAS), the Friends of the Institute, and the members of the 
Einstein 1 ega< j So( iety. 

It is iu\ pleasure to welcome David K.P. Li, Chairman and Chief Executive of The Bank 
of last Asia, I united, who was elected a member of the Board of Trustees on May 5' . He 
was a member of the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative 



16 



REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN 



Region and has served as Legislative Councillor since 1985. Dr. Li serves on the Board 
of Directors of Dow Jones &. Company and several other companies in Hong Kong and 
overseas, including Sime Darby Hong Kong Limited, Sime Darby Berhad, and South 
China Morning Post (Holdings) Limited. He is a graduate of Cambridge University and 
holds an M.A. degree in Economics and Law. 

It is a rare privilege to serve an institution as intellectually vital as the Institute for 
Advanced Study. Such centers of scholarship are more essential than ever before, more 
to be valued, more to be sustained. To the Faculty, AM1AS, Friends, Trustees, to the 
Director and his remarkable team, and to all others who contribute to this unique enter- 
prise, I express my gratitude. 

James D. Wolfensohn 
Chairman 



17 



1 am pleased to announce the appointment of two new Faculty members: Jonathan Israel 
to the School of Historical Studies, and Eric S. Maskin to the School of Social Science. 

A leading historian of early modern Europe, Jonathan Israel's scholarly interests are unusu- 
ally broad, and his thematic and geographic range extends from Central America to Russia, 
from Spain and Italy Co Scandinavia. The author of several major works on various aspects 
of the Dutch Golden Age, he is presently engaged in writing a book on the Dutch contri- 
bution bo the early Enlightenment (1660-1740) as well as several essays on European great 
power politics in the age of the Thirty Years War. Professor Israel received his undergradu- 
ate education at Queens College, Cambridge, and did his graduate work at the University of 
Oxford and the Colegio de Mexico, Mexico City. He received his Ph.D. from the Univer- 
sity of Oxford in 1972. He has been Professor of Dutch History and Institutions at Univer- 
sity College London since 1985. From 1973-75 he was an Assistant Lecturer and then a Lec- 
turer in Early Modern Europe (1492-1789) at the University of Hull. From 1974-81 he was 
a Lecturer in Early Modern European History at University College London, and a Reader 
in Modern History there from 1981-85. He is the author of numerous articles and eight 
books, and is the co-author or co-editor of four additional books. 

Eric Maskin has been appointed the first Albert O. Hirschman Professor in the School of 
Social Science. Professor Maskin's consistently innovative work, at the forefront of eco- 
nomic theory, has important policy implications and touches on many issues of broad 
interest to social scientists. He received his A.B. degree in mathematics from Harvard 
University in 1972, and his A.M. and Ph.D. degrees in applied mathematics from 
Harvard University in 1974 and 1976, respectively. Professor Maskin also holds an M.A. 
degree (honorary, 1977) from Cambridge University, where he was a Research Fellow at 
Jesus College during 1976-77. He taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
from 1977-84, moving to Harvard University in 1985 as Professor of Economics. He 
became the Louis Berkman Professor of Economics at Harvard in 1997. Professor Maskin 
is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Econometric 
Society. The author of numerous journal articles and book chapters, he is the editor of 
three books. Professor Maskin is currently the editor of the journal Economics Letters; this 
work will now be based at the Institute. 

C Clifford Geertz, a Faculty member in the School of Social Science, became Professor Emer- 
itus as of June 30. Professor Geertz came to the Institute in 1970 to found the School of 
Social Science; he was the School's first Faculty member, and became the Harold F. Linder 
Professor d Social Science in 1982. He was educated at Antioch College (A.R. in philos- 
ophy, 1950) and Harvard University (Ph.D. in anthropology, 1956), and has taught at Har- 
vard University; the University of California, Berkeley; the University of Chicago; the 
University of Oxford; and Princeton University. He has done tieldwork in Indonesia (Java, 
Bali, Sumatra, Sulawesi) and Morocco. Dubbed by an English colleague "the Priest-King 
of American Cultural Anthropology," he is the author of numerous books, translated into 
many languages, and die rcc ipient of many honors and honorary degrees. 

1 regret to announce the passing ot I lomer Armstrong Thompson, Professor in the 5 
of Historical Studies from 1947-1977 and Professor Emeritus from 1977-2000. Professor 
rhompson, one ol this century's leading classical archaeologists, was an internationally 
reo ignized si In >l,n u In > played a central role in the excavation and reconstruction ol the 
Agora, the .iin ienl Athenian marketplace where the accomplishments and fissures ol 
democracy first emerged. 1 lomer Thompson's work revealed the heart of ancient Athens 



18 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 



and created a new understanding of its architecture, art, history, and politics. In the 
process, he also formed two generations of archaeologists and shaped our understanding 
of ourselves. 

Over the past nine years, generous support from the Andtew W. Mellon Foundation has 
given the School of Historical Studies the opportunity to identify and explore new areas in 
humanistic studies in addition to those represented by the scholarly interests of the Faculty, 
and to offer opportunities to scholars across a broad range of fields and interests. The Mel- 
lon Visiting Professor Program has allowed the School to bring in, for two-year periods, a 
senior distinguished visiting professor and a group of Members with research interests in an 
area that the School wishes to explore. The topic this past year, the second in a three-year 
program on the history and culture of traditional China, was "Late Imperial Chinese Culture 
and Science." Benjamin A. Elman, Professor of Chinese History at the University of Cali- 
fornia, Los Angeles, is the Two-year Visiting Mellon Professor for 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. 
In addition to Professor Elman, six China scholars were in residence at the Institute, and par- 
ticipated in a series of seminars to which scholars from outside the Institute were invited. In 
addition to talks given by the Asian scholars in residence at the Institute, scholars from Bryn 
Mawr College; New York, Princeton, Rutgers, and Cambridge Universities; the University of 
California Santa Barbara; the University of Pennsylvania; and the University of Southern 
California participated in several different events organized by Professor Elman, including 
seminars and three different colloquia throughout the year. 

The Distinguished Visiting Professor in the School of Mathematics this year was Henryk 
Iwaniec, Rutgers University. Together with Peter Sarnak of Princeton University and 
Institute Faculty members Enrico Bombieri and Robert Langlands, Professor Iwaniec led 
a special program in analytic number theory. Three seminar lectures took place every 
week, with a total of over 70 lectures delivered by Institute Faculty and Members as well 
as by invited speakers from various universities. A very large area of mathematics was 
explored, from the traditional, concrete notions of the analytic theory of automorphic 
forms and L-functions, to the abstract ideas culminating in the conjectures of Professor 
Langlands. The Langlands conjectures were among the revolutionary ideas of the last 
century in mathematics, and provided a conjectural unification of traditional ideas in 
number theory. This special year ended with a workshop on "Recent Trends in Analyt- 
ic Number Theory"; the workshop was a joint project of the Institute and the Clay Math- 
ematics Institute, which provided substantial financial support. The Ambrose Monell 
Foundation continues to support the Distinguished Visiting Professor Program in the 
School of Mathematics, which allows it to focus on particular areas in mathematics and 
to bring to the Institute each year a distinguished scholar with interests in those areas. 
With Monell Foundation support, the School is able both to continue its stewardship of 
core mathematics and to explore selected areas of concentrated activity in mathematics. 

Last October, Robert Langlands began a series of lectures titled "The Practice of Mathe- 
matics." Originally planned as eight lectures for the academic year 1999-2000, with the 
possibility that additional sets of lectures would be given in future years, the lectures grew 
from eight to sixteen during this first year. Over the course of the sixteen lectures, Pro- 
fessor Langlands covered the Pythagorean theorem; the discovery of the irrationality of 
numbers like 2, 3, and 5; the construction of the regular pentagon with the aid of a ruler 
and compass alone; the introduction of coordinate geometry; the introduction of com- 
plex numbers; the construction of the regular heptadecagon with ruler and compass; the 
notion of an algebraic symmetry (Gauss and Galois); division of the lemniscate; use of 
complex numbers to prove Fermat's theorem for n = 3; factorization into primes; factor- 
ization into Kummer's ideal numbers; its use in Kummer's treatment of Fermat's theorem; 



19 



] rUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY 



and calculation of the number of essentially different ideal numbers in concrete, ele- 
mentary terms. In future years, Professor Langlands would like to continue the lectures 
with a series on classical fluid mechanics and turbulence. The final series of lectures 
would address the analytical problems suggested by renormalization in statistical mechan- 
ics and quantum field theory. 

With the appointment to the Faculty of Avi Wigderson, this past year also saw the School of 
Mathematics establish an ongoing presence in- theoretical computer science, a field last 
explored at the Institute during John von Neumann's tenure as a Faculty member. Professor 
Wigderson's specialty is theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics; during this 
past year he led a weekly seminar on combinatorics and complexity theory. The Institute is 
one of the very few academic institutions where work in mathematics and computer 
science takes place in one School, and is not divided into separate academic departments. 

This is a period of great excitement — perhaps even a golden age — in physics and 
astronomy. Both are currently at a point where great progress seems possible, 
where major breakthroughs may be within our grasp. A new program supported by the 
W.M. Keck Foundation will help to train theoreticians in an area — the interface 
between astronomy and physics — in which progress is explosive and qualified scientists 
are scarce. 

Frank Wilczek, the J. Robert Oppenheimer Professor in the School of Natural Sciences 
at the Institute for Advanced Study, has been appointed the first Herman Feshbach 
( 1942) Professor of Physics at MIT. Professor Wilczek joined the MIT physics faculty in 
September 2000. 

The Program in Theoretical Biology, led by Martin Nowak, completed its second year at 
the Institute for Advanced Study. Five Members worked with Dr. Nowak on research 
that included the mathematical modeling of infectious agents, viral population genetics, 
antiviral treatment, and the complex interaction between viruses and the immune sys- 
tem. More recent research includes work on cell signaling and mathematical models of 
tumor progression and chemotherapy. The Biology Lecture Series continued this year, 
and included eleven public lectures on topics ranging from the evolution of cooperation 
to the neurobiology of sensory information processing. Walter Fontana, Research Pro- 
fessor at the Santa Fe Institute, was a visiting Member for the year, and led a special pro- 
gram in genomics. 

The Institute Concert Series, organized by Artist-in-Residence Robert Taub, once again 
welcomed full houses to each of it> nine performances (three programs, each performed 
three times). In addition to his pre-concert lectures for the Institute community, Dr 
l.nil' initiated a second series of talks on new music, t;iven as a series ot conversations 
with invited masts: composers Jonathan Dawe and Jane O'Leary, and pianist Bruce 
Brubaker. In addition to his responsibilities as Artist-in-Residence, Robert Taub has 
maintained an active international performance schedule during his years at the Insti- 
tute. Must recently, he gave .1 solo pi. mo concert in May 2000 at the Library ot c \mgrev., 
where the J00' h anniversary of the piano was celebrated with programs that related CO 
autograph scores in the Library's collections. Following this performance, faub joined 
James Levine and the Munich Philharmonic on an eight concert tour of Germany. 

Robert Taub will complete bis term .is the Institute's Artist-in-Residence in June 2001, 
and the Institute b.is appointed [on Magnussen .is the nexl Artist-in-Residence. Dr. 
Magnussen is .1 composer of music tor the concert hall, dance, and drama. His scholarly 



20 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 



focus to date has been the work of Debussy and the early 20' h century, and he is a pianist 
and folk-guitarist. He began his period of residence at the Institute in June 2000, allow- 
ing one year of overlap with Robert Taub before taking over responsibility for the concert 
series and assuming his other duties as Artist-in-Residence. 

From May 30 through June 9, the Institute for Advanced Study hosted the IAS/Park City 
Mathematics Institute's annual Mentoring Program for Women in Mathematics, 
organised by Chuu-Lian Terng of Northeastern University and Karen Uhlenbeck of the 
University of Texas at Austin. Graduate students, undergraduates, postdoctoral scholars, 
and senior researchers made up the 40 participants. The program emphasized the con- 
tent and culture of mathematics and included lectures, seminars, working problem 
groups, mentoring and networking sessions and the opportunity to meet and interact with 
leading mathematicians. 

The Summer Session of the IAS/Park City Mathematics Institute (PCMI) was held this 
year on the campus of the Institute for Advanced Study from July 16 through August 5. 
Computational Complexity Theory was the research topic for PCMI's Graduate Summer 
School and Research Program. Avi Wigderson, Faculty member in the Institute's School 
of Mathematics, co-organized this program with Steven Rudich, Carnegie Mellon Uni- 
versity. Over 200 participants attended six separate but overlapping programs for 
researchers, high school teachers, undergraduate faculty, mathematics education 
researchers, and undergraduate and graduate students. Once again, the support of IAS 
Trustee Jon M. Huntsman, Jr. made it possible for PCMI to host a concert by Robert 
Taub, and a talk, "Mathematics, Music, and the Sublime," by Robert Taub and Edward 
Rothstein, Cultural Critic-at-Large for The New York Times. 

Each year the Institute welcomes Director's Visitors, distinguished visitors whose inter- 
ests often do not fall within the school structure of the Institute. These individuals con- 
tribute a great deal to the Institute community. This year Director's Visitors included 
Steve Batterson, Emory University; Melvyn Nathanson, Lehman College CUNY; and 
Alexandre Vinogradov, the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and the University of 
Salerno, Italy. 

The Institute hosts regional gatherings every year in the United States and abroad for 
AMIAS members and their guests. One such gathering this spring was a lecture and 
reception at California Institute of Technology, at which Edward Witten, Professor in the 
School of Natural Sciences, gave the lecture "Quest for Unification." Contributions 
from AMIAS members support the scholarship of Members currently in residence at the 
Institute: this past year AMIAS funded two Members, one in the School of Historical 
Studies, and one in the School of Natural Sciences. 

No account of the Institute's activities would be complete without recognizing the many- 
individuals whose various contributions play such an essential part in building the Insti- 
tute's strength and vitality. To the Faculty, Trustees, Members and former Members, the 
Friends of the Institute, and our staff, I express my deepest gratitude. 

Phillip A. Griffiths 
Director 



21 






The following is a calendar of events sponsored by the Office of the Director 



Institute Film Series 



New Member Reception 



Friends of the Institute 
Friends' Forum: "The Evolution of Coopera- 
tion: How to be Nice to Each Other" 
MARTIN NOWAK, Head, Program m 
Theoretical Biology, Institute for Advanced Study 



Institute Film Series 



Friends of the Institute 

Culture & Cuisine Series: "The Importance 

of Eating Everything" 

JEFFREY STEINGARTEN, Vogue Magarine 



Faculty/Colleague Dinner 
Institute Play-reading Series 

Institute Film Series 

Institute Play-reading Series 



Lunchtime Talk on New Music 

"Minimalism and Meximalism: A Performer's 

Perspective" 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence , Institute 

for Advanced Study and BRUCE BRUBAKER, 

pianist 



Friends of the Institute 

Friends' Forum: "The Hippocratic Oath: 

Personal and Professional Conduct in 

Ancient Medicine" 

HEINRICH von STADEN, Professor, School 

of Historical Studies, Institute for Advanced Study 



Institute Ballroom Dancing Series 



Friends of the Institute 

Fireside Chat: "The Architect's Task: 

Six Degrees of Connection" 

BOB GEDDES, Geddes Demshak Architecture 

and Planning 



Institute Concert Series 

Pre-concert Lecture 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence , Institute 

for Advanced Snuly 



Institute Concert Series 

Bartok: Sonata; Stravinsky: Three Pieces; 

Brahms: Sonata in F Minor, Op. 120 No. 1; 

Davidovsky: Synchronisms No. 9; Bartok: 

Contrasts 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence. Institute' 

for Advanced Study, CURTIS MACOMBER, 

violinist, and CHARLES NEIDICH, clarinetist 



Institute Lecture 

"Preparing for the 21" Century? World 

Politics Today" 

JACK MATLOCK, Jr., Professor, School of 

I listorical Studies, Institute for Advanced Study 



Institute trip 

Metropolitan Museum ol An 



Institute Film Series 



Institute Ballroom Dancing Series 



Friends of the Institute 

1I.4kI.iv Reception rot Friends and Faculty 



22 



RECORD OF EVENTS 1998-99 



Institute Film Series 



Institute Ballroom Dancing Series 



Institute Ballroom Dancing Series 



Institute Ballroom Dancing Series 



Children's Holiday Event 

THE GIVE &. TAKE JUGGLERS 



Institute Ballroom Dancing Series 



Lunchtime Talk on New Music 

"Creative Processes: A Composer's 

Perspective" 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence , Institute 

for Advanced Study and JONATHAN DAWE, 

composer 



Einstein Legacy Society Presentation 

"Women's Financial and Philanthropic 

Planning" 

CINDY STERLING, Vassar College 



Mid-winter Parry 



Institute Film Series 



Institute Ballroom Dancing Series 



Institute Ballroom Dancing Series 



Institute Lecture 
"The World's Numerical Recipe" 
FRANK WILCZEK, Professor, School of 
Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study 



New Member Reception 
Institute Ballroom Dancing Series 
Institute Film Series 

Institute Concert Series 

Pre-concert Lecture 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence , Institute 

for Advanced Study 



Institute Concert Series 

Schubert: Die Winterreise 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence, Institute 

for Advanced Study, RANDALL SCARLATA, 

baritone 

.- 
Institute Play-reading Series 



Institute Lecture 

"Global Governance: What is the Best We 

Can Do?" 

MICHAEL WALZER, Professor, School of 

Social Science, Institute for Advanced Study 



Lunchtime Talk on New Music 

"New Music and the Audience: A Composer's 

Perspective" 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence, Institute 

for Advanced Study and JANE O'LEARY, 

composer 

Friends of the Institute 

Friends' Forum: "English Poets on Britain and 

Rome" 

JASPER GRIFFIN, Member, School of Historical 

Studies, Institute for Advanced Study 



Faculty/Colleague Dinner 
Institute Play-reading Series 



Institute Concert Series 

Pre-concert Lecture 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence, Institute 

for Advanced Study 



23 



Institute for advanced study 



Institute Concert Series Friends of the Institute 

Haydn: Sonata in E-Flat Major, Hob. XVI:52; Culture & Cuisine Series: "Escoffier: 

Babbitt: Canonical Form (1983); Liszt: Etude The Chief and His Legacy" 

d'exikution Transcendante in F Minor; Schu- ALBERT SONNENFELD, Author 
mann-Lisit: Fruhlingsnacht; Verdi-Lisit: 
"Rigoletto" Paraphrase; Liszt: Mephisto Waltz 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence, Institute Institute Trip 

for Advanced Study Rose Center for Earth and Space, American 

Museum of Natural History 

Friends of the Institute 

Friends' Forum: "Cultural Prisons or Impartial Friends of the Institute 

Testing Sites: Civil Examinations in Late Friends' Forum: "The Problem of 'Witchcraft' 

Imperial China, 1400-1900" in a Democratic South Africa" 

BENJAMIN ELMAN, Mellon Visiting Professor, ADAM ASHFORTH, Visiting Associate 

School of Historical Studies , Institute for Professor, School of Social Science , Institute for 

Advanced Study Advanced Study 



Institute Trip Friends of the Institute 

Philadelphia Flower Show Annual Meeting and Picnic 



Einstein Legacy Society Presentation 
"Shakespeare, Science, and Risk" 
PETER BERNSTEIN, Author 

Institute Film Series 



Institute Trip 

Philadelphia Museum of Art 



Institute Lecture 

"The Digital Envelope — A Crash Course in 

Modern Cryptography" 

AVI WIGDERSON, Professor, School of 

Mathematics , Institute for Advanced Study 



Institute Film Series 



Institute Pla\ reading Series 



Institute Trip 

Ruse ( 'enter for h.irth ,ind Space, American 

Museum .'t Natural 1 liStOT) 



Institute Film Series 



24 




The institution itself is established not merely to train teachers or to 
produce holders of advanced degrees. The primary' purpose is the 
pursuit of advanced learning and exploration in fields of pure science 
and high scholarship to the utmost degree that the facilities of the institution 
and the ability of the faculty and students will permit." 

— Louis Bamberger and Mrs. Felix Fuld, Letter addressed by the Founders 
to their Trustees, June 6, 1930 



Albert Einstein, a Faculty member in the School of Mathematics from 1933-1955, and Rabbi Levy look at a copy of Time magazine that 
predates the December 31, 1999 issue in which Professor Einstein u/as named Time's Person of the Century 



The Institute for Advanced Study expresses deep appreciation 

for all gifts and grants to its endowment and capital funds, for annual 

operating support and for in-kind contributions in fiscal year 2000. 



Stephen L. Adler 

AMIAS (Association of Members of the Institute for Advanced Study) 

John P. Birkelund 

Michael R. Bloomberg 

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company 

Helen and Martin Chooljian 

Clay Mathematics Institute 

Harry and Helen Cohen Charitable Foundation 

Mary and Theodore L. Cross 

Datek Online Holdings Corporation 

Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation 

Deutsche Bank AG 

Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation 

Anthony B. Evnin 

Richard B. Fisher 

The Ford Foundation 

Friends of the Institute for Advanced Study 

Karen Blu and Clifford Geertz 

The J. Paul Getty Trust* 

The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation 

The Florence Gould Foundation 

Vartan Gregorian 

Doris M. and Ralph E. Hansmann 

The Teresa and H. John Heinz III Foundation 

Jon M. Huntsman, Jr. 

J. Seward Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts 

Helene L. Kaplan 

W. M. Keck Foundation 

W. K. Kellogg Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Immanuel Kohn 

Martin L. Leibowitz 

Shelby White and Leon Levy 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Loughlin 

The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation 

Hamish Maxwell 

Robert B. Menschel 

Lauren K. and J. Ezra Merkin 

Mrs. F. Merle-Smith 

Merrill Lynch &. Co. Foundation, Inc. 

Nathan P. Myhrvold 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

National Endowment for the Humanities 



*Matching gift to an individual contribution 



27 



Institute for advanced study 



National Science Foundation 

State of New Jersey 

Max Palevsky 

Elena and Giorgio Petronio 

RGK Foundation 

Daniel and Joanna S. Rose Fund, Inc. 

William M. Roth Fund 

Dr. and Mrs. William H. Scheide 

William A. Schreyer 

The Seaver Institute 

The Simons Foundation 

Charles Simonyi 

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 

Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Observatory 

Space Telescope Science Institute 

The Spencer Foundation 

The Starr Foundation 

Toyota USA Foundation 

United States Department of Energy 

Ladislaus von Hoffmann 

Marina v.N. Whitman 

Elaine and James D. Wolfensohn 

Wolfensohn Family Foundation 

Brian F. Wruble 

Mortimer B. Zuckerman 



Estate of Marianne Iceland 

Estate of Paul Oskai Kristeller 

Estate of Mrs. Jael Nathan 



The Einstein Legacy Society was established in 1996 to honor those who have made a 

planned gift to the Institute for Advanced Study and those who have indicated that the 

Institute is in their estate plans. The Institute acknowledges with gratitude donors of 

planned gifts and new members of the Einstein Legacy Society during fiscal year 2000. 

Virginia N. and Robert W. Loughlin 

Chuu-Lian Terng and Richard S. Palais 

Alfred L. Putnam 



> 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



CHAIRMAN'S CIRCLE 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Brown 

Helen and Martin Chooljian 

Mary and Tom Evslin 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Jaffin 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Loughlin 

Nancy and Duncan MacMillan 

Elena and Giorgio Petronio 

Tomasina and James Schiro 

DIRECTOR'S CIRCLE 
Mr. and Mrs. James E. Burke 

Barbara Chancellor 

Donna and Morton Collins 

Mr. and Mrs. Ward S. Hagan 

Sally and Jim Hill 

Lynn and Bob Johnston 

Keke Li 

Sharon and Frank Lorenzo 

Ann P. and John L. McGoldrick 

William A. Schreyer 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael P. Schulhof 

Hermine Warren 

Susan and Donald Wilson 



BENEFACTORS 



Joyce and Georg Albers-Schonberg 

The Aresty Foundation 

Dr. and Mrs. Jean-Pierre Arnoux 

Penny and Bill Bardel 

Elizabeth and Peter Baughan 

Dr. Eric Baum and Elise Baum 

Leonard E. Baum 

Mr. and Mrs. B. Richard Benioff 

Lynn and Peter Bienstock 

Corinne M. Black 

James M. Brandon 

Addie and Harold Broitman 

Mary and Bill Bundy 

Mrs. John J. Burns 

Lisa Burns 

Mr. and Mrs. Nathaniel Burt 

Betty Wold Johnson and Douglas F. Bushnell 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael Cary 

Melanie and John Clarke 

Hope Fay Cobb 

Edward T Cone 



Mildred B. Cook 

Joanne and Dan Cuoco 

Mr. and Mrs. Keith M. Danko 

Lydia de Botton-Edrei 
Lucia and Sebastian de Grazia 

Rysia de Ravel 

Katherine and Robert Del Tufo 

Elena Vladimirovna Alexeeva and 

Pierre R. Deligne 

Jane and Charles Dennison 

Judi and Sam deTuro 

Elizabeth C. Dilworth 

Marlene and Aiden Doyle 

Mr. and Mrs. K. Philip Dresdner 

Wells Drorbaugh 

Sandi and Charles Ellis 

Hanni and Jack Ellis 

Elizabeth S. Ettinghausen 

Wendy and Larry Evans 

Ruth and Joseph Fath 

Elizabeth and Miguel Fernandez 



29 



Institute for advanced study 



Mr. ind Mrs. Henry Gallagher 
Evelyn and Robert Geddes 

Nancy Nalle Genung 

Laveme and Tom George 

Ann and Walter Gips 

Colleen A. Goggins 

Mr. and Mrs. H. Pim Goodbody, Jr. 

Rachel and Charles Gray 

Mr. and Mrs. William Greenberg 

Mr. and Mrs. Harleston J. Hall, Jr. 

Joan and Jack Hall 

Lisa and Peter Ham 

Samuel M. Hamill, Jr. 

Janet Hautau 

Alan K. Hegedus 

Karen C. Hegener 

Mr. and Mrs. George H. Heilborn 

Dr. Lucille Heller 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert F. Hendrickson 

Sarah and Lincoln Hollister 

Drs. Frances and Simeon Hutner 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Issawi 
Mary Lee and Thomas Jamieson 
Deane Anne Johnson 
Ann and Allen Jones 
Florence and Steven Kahn 
Dr. and Mrs. Allen H. Kassof 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Kauzmann 
Mary P. Keating 
Suzanne Keller 
Nora and John Ken- 
Shirley Kobak 
Mt. and Mrs. Immanuel Kohn 
Mr. and Mrs. William P. Krause 
Helene and Russell Kulsrud 
Patricia and George Labalme 
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel W. Lambert III 

1 Isini and John D. Langlois 

Mr. and Mrs. Peter Lawson-Johnston 

Mr. and Mrs. William T. Lifland 

Mr. and Mrs. D. E. Littlefield 

Nancy and Pablo Lorenzo 

Mr. and Mrs. P. J. Lucchesi 

Catharine and Charles Macdon.ilJ 

Pamela and Roland Machold 
Dr. and Mrs. James W. MacKenzie 
Jane L. and Robert S. MacLennan 
Emily Rose and James H. Marrow 
Mr. and Mrs. Michael K. Marshall 



Dr. and Mrs. James F. Mathis 

Eleonore B. McCabe 

Mr. and Mrs. James R. McCredie 

Joseph F McCrindle 

Charles W. McCutchen 

Harriette and John McLoughlin 

Jackie and Cy Meisel 

Mrs. F. Merle-Smith 

Barbara F. Graham and 

Theodore S. Meth 

Joseph H. Meyer 

Nancy T Myers and Michael J. Myers 

Rosemary and James O'Brien 

Matthew Oristano 

Dr. and Mrs. Robert R. Palmer 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Paneyko 

Jean and Larry Parsons 

Fayne and Samuel Petok 

Jacquie and Woody Phares 

George Pitcher 

Ann and Conrad Plimpton 

Dorothy and Charles Plohn, Jr. 

Professor and Mrs. T. Alexander Pond 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard G. Poole 

Edgar L. Rachlin 

(deceased September 4, 2000) 

Anne and John Rassweiler 

Cindy and John Reed 

Frances F and Eric H. Reichl 

Millard M. Riggs, Jr. 

Laura and William Riley 

Harriet C. Robertston Foundation, 

David 6k Harriet Robertson, Trustees 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Rose 

Diane D. and Leon E. Rosenberg 

Louise Rosenblatt 

Mrs. Frederic Rosengarten, Jr. 

William M. Roth 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen I. Rowe 

Carolyn and George Sanderson 

Anita and Sanjay Sathe 

Dr. and Mrs. William H. Scheide 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert K. Schmidt 

Helmut Schwab 

Alice and David Sengstack 

Janet and Winthrop Short 

Pamela Aarons and Saul Skoler 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Slighton 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred P. Slivon, Jr. 



JO 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Marjorie and David Smith 

Stanley C. Smoyer 

Kit and Arnie Snider 

Margaret R. Spanel 

Eleanor K. Spence 

Wendy and Andrew Steginsky 

Joshua L. Steiner 

Fritz Stern 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Barnwell Straut 

Martha and William Sword, Jr. 

Rush Taggart 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank E. Taplin, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. E. D. Thomas 

W. Bryce Thompson 
Judith and John Thomson 



Kathrin W Poole and 

Howard H. Tomlinson 

Georgia and Peter Travers 

Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin B. Tregoe 

Mr. and Mrs. Jesse I. Treu 

Gail and Richard Ullman 

Flora and Robert Varrin 

Harriet and Jay Vawter 

Happy and Jack Wallace 

Dr. and Mrs. Fong Wei 

Caroline S. and F. Helmut Weymar 

Laura and Roscoe White 

Mr. and Mrs. John J. Wise 

Dr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Zawadsky 



Matches of individual contributions were received 
from the following organizations: 

Cabot Corporation Foundation, Inc. 
Price waterhouseCoopers Foundat ion 



31 



Institute for advanced study 



William Abikofl 
Stephen L. Adlei 
Alan Adolphson 
Susan Ames 
Anonymous 
James G. Arthur 

Bulent Atalay 

Giles Auchmuty 

Fernande Auslander 

(In memory of her husband Louis Auslander) 

Sherhurne F. Barber 

Claude Bardos 

Steve Batterson 

Rainer Baubock 

Greg Bayer 

Alice C. Beckenbach 

Brigitte Bedos-Rezak 

Haim Beinart 

Georgia Benkart 

Dr. and Mrs. Paul Berg 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Bernard 

Jeremy Bernstein 

Maggie and Christopher Bickford 

Henry and Leigh Bienen 

Norman Birnbaum 

Herbert Bloch 

John Boler 

Armand Borel 

Fanette Pollack and John D. Breit 

T. Corey Brennan 

John B. Bronzan 

Joseph Brown 

Virginia Broun 

Nicholas Buchdahl 

Glenn Richard Bugh 

Robert J. C. Butow 

A. E. Campbell 

David K. Campbell 

James C. Cant re II 

Eugene A. Carroll 

Hoi Fung Chau 

Sun-Chin Chu 

Anne L. Clark 

The Clavius (. iroup 

Ed ( 'line 

Ansley 1 i loale 



Getzel M. Cohen 

Richard M. Cohn 

Owen Connelly 

Bruno and Maria Coppi 

Vincent F. Cowling 

Roger J. Crum 

Michael Cwikel 

Pilar de la Tone 

Jacob C. Dekker 

Harold G. Diamond 

Eleanor Dickey 

J. M. Dillon 

Xiaomei Liu and Kequan Ding 

Walter Dietrich 

Willis Doney 

J. L. Doob 

Robert S. Doran 

Pierre Du Prey 

Mary and Richard Dunn 

Bernice and Loyal Durand 

Imme and Freeman Dyson 

Bruce Eastwood 

Dale F. Eickelman 

Christiane Eisenberg 

Dyan Elliott 

Michele Faraguna 

Margot Fassler 

Paul M. N. Feehan 

Carter V Findley 

Carole Fink 

Val L. Fitch 

Theodore Frankel 

John Freed 

Freed Family Foundation 

Murr.u (. icrstenhaber 

Abolghassem GharTari 

Charles C. Gillispie 

Patrick Gilmer 

Leslie C. Glaser 

George I. Glaubetman 

James F. Glazebrook 

Anton Good 

Andrew P. Gould 

Andreas Graeser 

Mauro F. Guillen 

Robert Gut man 



J 2 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Deborah Tepper Haimo 
Albert N. Hamscher 
Michele Hannoosh 

Bert Hansen 
Evelyn B. Harrison 
Gisbert Hasenjaeger 

D. C. Heggie 
Wolfhart Heinrichs 
Maurice H. Heins 

Henry Helson 

Leon A. Henkin 

Louise P. Herring and Conyers Herring 

Peter Herrmann 

Haruzo Hida 

Nancy Hingston 

Lawrence P. Horwitz 

Robert C. Howell 

Michel Huglo 

James E. Humphreys 

Shigeru Iitaka 

Richard L. Ingraham 

Ron and Gail Irving 

Ephraim Isaac 

Shuntaro Ito 

Howard Jacobson 

Herve Jacquet 

James J. John 

Jones Family Trust 

(In memory of F. Burton Jones) 

Marc Kamionkowski 

Michael B. Katz 

Stanley N. Katz 

E. S. and M. H. Kennedy 

Toichiro Kinoshita 
Georg Nicolaus Knauer 

Marvin I. Knopp 

Mihail N. Kolountzakis 

Milton R. Konvitz 

A. A. Kosinski 

Masato Kurihara 

John Kwan 

Nick Kylafis 

Patricia H. Labalme 

Henry J. Landau 

William E. Lang 

Charlotte and Robert Langlands 

Richard K. Lashof 

Robert Lee 
H. W. Lenstra, Jr. 



L. R. Lewitter 

Charles Li 

Anatoly Libgober 

Mr. and Mrs. David I. Lieberman 

Joram Lindenstrauss 

Juan J. Linz 

Ming-Chit Liu 

Pierre A. MacKay 

Bob MacPherson 

Harold Mah 

Franz Georg Maier 

Blair Rogers Major 

(In memory of her husband J. Russell Major) 

Philip Mannheim 

Fouad J. Masrieh 

Amo J. Mayer 

James R. McCredie 

Ronald Mellor 

John R. Melville-Jones 

Lucy Shoe Meritt 
G. Robert Meyerhoff 
Erika and Ernest Michael 
Henry A. Millon 
Vernon Hyde Minor 
Maria Teresa Marabini Moevs 
Carlos Julio Moreno 
David R. Morrison 
Karl F. Morrison 
Paul S. Mostert 
G. Daniel Mostow 
C. J. Mozzochi 
Amador Muriel 
Luis Narvaez-Macarro 
Melvyn B. Nathanson 
Y. Jack Ng 
Doug Niebur 
Knut W. Non- 
Mary Jo Nye 
Timothy O'Meara 

Peter Orlik 

Sherry B. Ortner 

Martin Ostwald 

Burt A. Ovrut 

Chuu-Lian Terng and Richard S. Palais 

Francois Paschoud 

Norman G. O. Pereira 

Chris Peters 

James V. Peters 

Ilya Piatetski-Shapiro 



33 



Institute for advanced study 



David Pingree 

John U. Polking 

karla Pollmann 

Poni 

William L. Pressly 

Murray H. PlDttei 

Alfred L. Putnam 

C. R. Putnam 

Theodore Rahh 

M. M. Rao 

Claudia Rapp 

John Ci. Ratcliffe 

|erome R. Ravetz 

B. P. Reardon 

Helmut Reeh 

Erica Reiner 

Guillermo Sierra Restrepo 

Jean-Paul Rey-Coquais 

P. J. Rhodes 

L. Richardson, Jr. 

David Ringrose 

Jennifer T. Roberts 

Fritz Rohrlich 

Renato Rosaldo 

David Ruelle 

William L. Sachse 

Cora Sadosky 

Lyman Tower Sargent 

Alice T Schafer 

Richard Donald Schafer 

Gerhard Schmidt 

Pr. and Mrs. Robert E. Schofield 

Carl E. Schorske 

John Schreckei 

Atle Selherg 

Domenico Sella 

Alan E. Shapiro 

Jane A Sharp 

Richard B. Shei 

Allan J. Silbergei 

Maxine I Singer 

Robert i '. Sleigh, Jr. 

rge A. Snow 

Eric Sommers 

Diane I Souvaine 

( rerald Speisman 

T A. Springer 

Bhama Srinivaaan 
Nancy K. Stanton 



Jim Stasheff 

Maria and Robert Steinberg 

Clarence E Stephens 

George Sterman 

Ronald and Sharon Stern 

Wilhelm Stoll 

R. Richard Summerhill 

Hans Taeuber 

Earl J. Taft 

Masaru Takeuchi 

Richard J. A. Talbert 

H.S.Thayer 

Lubos Thoma 

Leslie L. Threatte, Jr. 

Gerhard Thiir 

William Tobocman 

John Todd 

I ling Tong 

Imre Toth 

William R. Transue 

Georgia Triantafillou 

Howard G. Tucker 

A. Richard Turner 

Karen K. Uhlenbeck 

Linda Ehrsam Voigts 

Philip Wagreich 
Samuel S. Wagstaff, Jr. 

Jonathan Wahl 

Howard D. Weinbrot 

Tilla Weinstein 

Theodore Weiss 

Raymond O. Wells, Jr. 

Marit Werenskiold 

John Wermer 

H. L. Wesseling 

Laura and Roscoe White 

Mrs. Albert Leon Whiteman 

Robert E Williams 

Robert L Wilson 

lames R. Wiseman 

Louis Witten 

John W.Wood 
Hung-Hsi Wu 

Dieter Wuttke 

York-Peng Edward Yao 

Mitsum Yasuhaia 

M. Crawford Young 

Piter /arrow 
Ernst-Wilhelm Zink 



J4 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 






Lila Ahu-Lughod 

Adam Ashforth 

Benjamin R. Barber 

Rainer Baubock 

Nancy Bonus and Joseph Blasi 

Mr. and Mrs. Preston Brown 

Robert J. C. Butow 

(In memory of Marjorie Milbank Farrar) 

Cabot Corporation Foundation, Inc.* 

Chatauqua Programs 

Ansley J. Coale 

Cecilia M. Cooper 

Christina Crosby 

Teri and Hubert Damisch 

Natalie Zemon Davis and Chandler Davis 

Mr. and Mrs. Platon C. Deliyannis 

Deborah Durham 

Dale F. Eickelman 

Jean Bethke Elshtain 

Professor and Mrs. Harold Falk 

Renate and James Fernandez 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen R. Frauenshuh 

Moore Gates, Jr. 

Marvin L. Goldberger 

Rachel and Charles Gray 

Catherine and Pierre Gremion 

Amy Gutmann and Michael Doyle 

James F Hawkins 

Jennifer L. Hochschild and C. Anthony Broh 

J. P. Morgan &. Co. Inc.* 

Jane Mansbridge and Christopher Jencks 

Martin Kohli 



Junji Koizumi 

Bruce Mazlish 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard J. Mihalek 

Peter Mitchell 

Dorothy C. Moote and A. Lloyd Moote 

Louise J. Morse 

M. Catharine and David S. Newbury 

Claus Offe 

Sherry B. Ortner 

Judy and Frank Reeder 

Harold J. Rivkin 

Barbara H. Roberts 

Renato Rosaldo 

Hilda Sabato 

Joan Wallach Scott 

Martin Shefter 

Allan Silver 

Quentin Skinner 

Eugene R. Speer 

Thomas C. Spencer 

Fritz Stern 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur T. Susman 

Charles Taylor 

Donald E. Thompson 

Louise A. Tilly 

June W. Allison and Stephen V. Tracy 

Diana F. Waltman 

Judith and Michael Walzer 

John Waterbury 

Margaret Weir 

Edward Witten 



Estate of Pamela Askew 

George Clark 

Carroll King 

Mary and Joseph Palmer 

Peter Paret 

Fritz Stern 

Heinrich von Staden 



*Matching gift to an individual contribution 



35 



Institute for advanced study 






The Institute for Advanced Study acknowledges with gratitude all those who contributed to the 

Albert O. Hirschman Chair in Economics, established to perpetuate the special qualities that make 

Professor Hirschman's presence at the Institute so fruitful for scholarship and for the world. Each 

and every gift made a difference, from the opening grant by Deutsche Bank AG, through the 

contributions of former Members of the School of Social Science and other generous friends, 

to the closing gift of Mr. and Mrs. James 1"). Wolfensohn. 



Lila Abu-Lughod 

Anonymous 

Adam Ashforth 

Benjamin R. Barber 

Kaushik Basu 

Rainer Baubock 

Carlos Bazdresch 

Regina and John Bendix 

Leigh and Henry Bienen 

Norman Birnbaum 

Nancy Bonus and Joseph Blasi 

Diane and James E. Burke 

Jiwei Ci 

Ansley J. Coale 

Edward T. Cone 

Robert Cooter 

Christina Crosby 

Lord Ralf Dahrendorf 

Teri and Hubert Damisch 

Susan and Robert Darnton 

Natalie Zemon Davis and Chandler Davis 

Barbara and Richard Day 

^Catherine and Robert Del Tufo 

Deutsche Bank AG 

Laurence Dickey 

Elizabeth C. Dilworth 

Deborah Durham 

Marc Edelman 

Dale F. Eickelman 

Sir John H. Elliott 

Jean Bcthke Elshtain 

Anthony B. Evnin 

Charles Fawcett 

Renatc and James Fernandez 

Richard B. Fisher 

Karen Blu and Clifford Geertz 

Herbert (mills 

Rachel and Charles Gray 

Catherine and Pierre Gremimi 

Stephen Gudeman 



Amy Gutmann and Michael Doyle 

Doris M. and Ralph E. Hansmann 

Jennifer L. Hochschild and C. Anthony Broh 

Walter A. Jackson 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Jaffin 

Jane Mansbridge and Christopher Jencks 

Harry Kahn (deceased August 29, 1999) 

Evelyn Fox Keller 

Charles P. Kindleberger 

J. Burke Knapp 

Martin Kohli 

Junji Koizumi 

Marie-Josee Kravis 

Timur Kuian 

Michele Lamont and Frank Dobbin 

Axel Leijonhufvud 

Juan J. and Rocio T. Lin: 

Charles S. Maier 

Bruce Mazlish 

Michael S. McPherson 

Robert B. Menschel 

Jackie and Sid Mintz 

Dorothy C. Moote and A. Lloyd Moote 

Mohammed Naciri 

M. Catharine and David S. Newbury 

Claus Offe 

Sherry B. Oitnet 

Max Palevsky 

Mark Perlman 

Elena and Giorgio Petronio 

Carlo Poni 

Debora Silverman and Jeffrey Prager 

Melvin Richter 

Renato Rosaldo 

Daniel and Joanna S. Rose Fund, Inc. 

George Rosen 

William M. Roth Fund 

l '.irnl ,ind Allen Rowe 

Jeffrey W Rubin 

Hilda Sabato 



36 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Javier Santiso 

Elizabeth and Carl Schorske 

Tiber Scitovsky 

James C. Scott 

Joan Wallach Scott 

Rebecca Scott and Peter Railton 

Martin E. Segal 

Amartya Sen 

Martin Shefter 

Allan Silver 

Quentin Skinner 

Antoinette Delruelle and Joshua L. Steiner 

Fritz Stern 

Charles Taylor 

Dorothy Morgenstern Thomas 

Judith and John Thomson 



Louise A. Tilly 

Diane Vaughan 

Francine Frankel and Douglas Verney 

Judith and Michael Walzer 

R. Stephen Warner 

John Waterbury 

David F. Weiman 

Margaret Weir 

Allen Wells 

Marina v.N. Whitman 

Mary and Gordon Winston 

Elaine and James D. Wolfensohn 

Brian F. Wruble 

M. Crawford Young 

Viviana A. Zelizer 



PR( 

The Institute for Advanced Study is deeply appreciative of gifts in fiscal year 2000 designated to 
provide annual support for Professorships and Memberships. 

PROFESSORSHIPS 

New Jersey Albert Einstein Professor 

by the State of New Jersey 

Two- Year Mellon Visiting Professor 
by The Andrew W Mellon Foundation 

Distinguished Visiting Professor 
by The Ambrose Monell Foundation 



MEMBERSHIPS 

AMIAS (Association of Members of the Institute for Advanced Study) 

Bankers Trust Company Foundation 

Helen and Martin Chooljian 

Charles D. Ellis 

Friends of the Institute for Advanced Study 

The Florence Gould Foundation 

Gerda Henkel Stiftung 

Hubble Space Telescope Fellowships 

W M. Keck Foundation 

Lampadia Foundation 

The Andrew W Mellon Foundation 

The Ambrose Monell Foundation 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

National Endowment for the Humanities 

National Science Foundation 



37 



Institute for advanced study 



NEC Research Institute 

State of New Jersey 

The Seaver Institute 

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 

Fritz Thyssen Stittung 

United States Department of Energy 



The Institute for Advanced Study continues to be grateful to donors for their past generosity in 
providing major gifts to establish endowed Professorships and Memberships. 

ENDOWED PROFESSORSHIPS 

Richard Black Professorship 

Albert O. Hirschman Professorship 

IBM von Neumann Professorship 

George F. Kennan Professorship 

Harold F. Under Professorship 
Andrew W. Mellon Professorship 

Charles Simonyi Professorship 

UPS Foundation Professorship 

Hermann Weyl Professorship 

ENDOWED MEMBERSHIPS 

The Bell Companies Fellowship 

The Corning Glass Works Foundation Fellowship 

George William Cottrell, Jr. Membership 

Elizabeth and J. Richardson Dilworth Fellowships in Historical Studies 

The Ellentuck Fund 

The 50' h Anniversary Fellowship in Social Science 

Marvin L. Goldberger Membership 

The Hetty Goldman Membership Fund 

The Florence Gould Foundation 

Agnes Gund and Daniel Shapiro Membership 

The Ralph E. and Doris M. Hansmann Membership 

The Herodotus Fund 

The IBM Einstein Fellowships 

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

Otto Neugebauer Fund 

Patrons' Endowment Fund 

The Sivian Fund 

Frank and Peggy Taplin Memberships 

The Oswald Veblen Fund 

The von Neumann Fund 

The Weyl Fund 

Edwin C. and Elizabeth A. Whitehead Fellowship 

The James D. Wolfensohn Fund 



* 




This has been the most productive year of my career, a direct 
result of the intellectually stimulating environment, 
collegial atmosphere and optimum material conditions for 
work ... I found the combination of organized seminars and 
informal lunches with the complete freedom to pursue my research 
interests a constant source of fresh ideas, and often those I rejected 
provided as productive a stimulus to my writing as those I decided 
to incorporate into my own thought." 



— Member, School of Social Science 



THt SCHOOL Ob HISTOR] DIES 



GLEN W. BOWERSOCK 

GILES CONSTABLE 

PATRICIA CRONE, Andrew W. Melion Professor 

IRVING LAVIN 

JACK F. MATLOCK, Jr., George F. Kennan Professor 

HEINRICH von STADEN 



BENJAMIN ELMAN 

MARSHALL CLAGETT 

OLEG GRABAR 

CHRISTIAN HABICHT 

GEORGE F. KENNAN 

PETER PARET 

HOMER A. THOMPSON 

(deceased May 7, 2000) 

MORTON WHITE 

The School of Historical Studies is concerned principally with the history of Western and 
Near Eastern civilization. Within this wide area of study, a large range of topics has been 
explored at one time or another by Faculty and Members, but the emphasis has been par- 
ticularly strong in the fields of Greek and Roman civilization, medieval, early modern 
and modern European history, Islamic culture, and the history of art, science, and ideas. 

The particular emphases of the School are a product of its own history. Two years after 
the opening of the School of Mathematics in 1933, a School of Economics and Politics 
and a School of Humanistic Studies were established. In Humanistic Studies, the first 
professor was Benjamin Dean Meritt, a specialist in Greek history and epigraphy, who was 
closely associated with excavations in the Athenian Agora. The second appointment to 
the Faculty of the School of Humanistic Studies was that of the German art historian 
Erwin Panofsky. Panofsky ranged through the entire gamut of European art from the mid- 
dle ages to motion pictures, but he was most closely associated with the development of 
the field of iconology. 

Three additional appointments strengthened the field of classical and Near Eastern 
studies: Elias Avery Lowe, a Latin paleographer who worked on the handwriting of pre- 
ninth century manuscripts; Ernst Herzfeld, a Near Eastern archaeologist and historian, 
whose scholarly work comprised nearly 200 titles; and Hetty Goldman, one of the 



41 



Institute for advanced study 



pioneering American women archaeologists, whose discoveries at Tarsus in Turkey were 
published in six volumes. Modern history was represented at the Institute from the out- 
set with the appointment of the military and political historian Edward M. Earle. Earle 
was an original member of the School of Economics and Politics, which merged in 1949 
with the School of Humanistic Studies to become the School of Historical Studies. 

After World War II, classical studies were further augmented by the appointments of 
Homer A. Thompson in Greek archaeology, Harold F. Cherniss in Greek philosophy, 
and Andrew Alfoldi in ancient history and numismatics. Although Alfoldi published 
tirelessly on a wide range of subjects during his years at the Institute, he was mainly pre- 
occupied with the history of early Rome and that of Julius Caesar, on both of which sub- 
jects he wrote several books. Medieval history came to the Institute Faculty with Ernst 
Kantorowicz, whose interest stretched in time from the later phases of classical antiquity 
to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and in space embraced both western Europe and 
the Byzantine and Islamic East. The art historical tradition was carried on by Millard 
Meiss, who was able to complete at the Institute his great work on late medieval manu- 
script painting in Burgundy. 

Additions to the Faculty in modern history came with the appointments of Sir Ernest 
Llewelyn Woodward in British diplomatic history; George F. Kennan, former Ambassador 
to Russia, in Russian history and international relations; Felix Gilbert in Renaissance as 
well as modern history; Morton White in the history of modern philosophy; and Peter 
Paret in modern European history. Roman military history and papyrology were repre- 
sented by James F. Gilliam; medieval history of the Latin East, Venice, and the relations 
between the Papacy and the Levant by Kenneth M. Setton; medieval science, especially 
the classical heritage, by Marshall Clagett; Islamic art and culture by Oleg Grabar; and 
Greek and Roman history, especially the Hellenistic period, by Christian Habicht. 

While these traditions have remained strong in the School of Historical Studies, they 
have not excluded scholars working in other fields who have come here as Members. 
More than a thousand Members have come to the School since its foundation. The arti- 
cles and books resulting from their research at the Institute are witness to the quality and 
productivity of their scholarly activity here. 

In late September of 1999 PROFESSOR GLEN BOWERSOCK participated in a con- 
gress on the history and archaeology of central Syria at the invitation of the DirectOI 
General of Antiquities and Museums of the Syrian Arab Republic. He spoke on late 
antique Chalcis (Qinneshrin). Since the congress took place in Hama, he took the 
opportunity to spend several days beforehand at the Belgian excavations in Apamea. In 
Damascus he c o nferred with a new academic publisher who will be issuing Arabic trans 
lations of western scholarly work (including his own). In October, Professor Bowersock 
gave an introductory lecture at an international conference held at Smith College on 
new directions in the study of Late Antiquity. In early November, he spent several 
days at the Center tor Hellenic Studies in Washington, DC, as a scholar in residence. 



42 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



During that time he conducted a seminar on a Greek inscription and presented a talk on 
new developments at Petra in Jordan. 

In 1999, Professor Bowersock was elected a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of 
Sciences in Moscow, and he received an honorary doctorate from the Ecole Pratique des 
Hautes Etudes in Paris. During his visit to Paris for the ceremony in December he 
addressed the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres on the topic of "Les Euemerioi 
et les confreries joyeuses." In the first part of 2000, he spoke on the Euemerioi before the 
Near Eastern Department at Indiana University, and he delivered a Faculty Lecture at the 
University of Western Ontario on the building of the first basilica of St. Peter's on the 
Vatican in Rome. He contributed a paper (unfortunately in absentia) to a session on 
W. L. Westermann at the annual meeting of the American Association of Ancient 
Historians, held in Madison, Wisconsin. In early June, he joined several colleagues in a 
two-week visit to Sicily. 

Among the publications of Professor Bowersock in 1999-2000 was the encyclopedic 
volume that he edited together with Peter Brown and Oleg Grabar, Late Antiquity: A 
Guide to the Postclassical World, published by Harvard. His other publications included a 
study of Petra as a Graeco-Roman city and a long delayed analysis of historical material 
in the Syriac Life of Rabbula. He continued to serve on the editorial boards of several 
journals, and he saw two new volumes published in the series Revealing Antiquity, for 
which he is General Editor at the Harvard University Press. One of those volumes was 
The End of the Past: Ancient Rome and the Modem West by former Institute Member Aldo 
Schiavone. Professor Bowersock flew back to Europe at the end of June to chair a meet- 
ing of the Comite Scientifique of the Maison de l'Orient in Lyon. 

In the academic year 1999-2000, PROFESSOR GILES CONSTABLE published a col- 
lection of articles (his fifth), which included a bibliography of his publications from 1953 
through 1999. He also published three further articles, a memoir, and a review. He gave 
lectures or talks at the Ninth Annual Conference of the Texas Medieval Association in 
Amarillo (September), a colloquium on "Byzantine Monastic Documents" at Dumbarton 
Oaks (March), a meeting on "Spanning Consciousness: The Mediterranean as Fons et 
Origo" at the University of Messina (March), and the University of Oxford (May), and 
he commented on a paper presented at the Davis Center, Princeton (April). Together 
with Professor Robert Somerville of Columbia, he organized a meeting (the first to be 
held in this country) of the Commission Internationale de Diplomatique (September), 
which (in spite of hurricane Floyd) met both at the Institute for Advanced Study and at 
Columbia University, with a side trip to The Cloisters. Professor Constable attended 
meetings at Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, and Fordham Univer- 
sity. He arranged the usual meeting of the Delaware Valley Medieval Association, at 
which several members of the School of Historical Studies spoke, in December. He was 
appointed to the Advisory Board of the Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 

PROFESSOR PATRICIA CRONE continued to work on Islamic political thought, 
deciding to take the book she is writing on that subject down to the Mongol invasions 
(mid-thirteenth century) instead of stopping in c. 1100. She gave lectures on various 
aspects of political thought in early Islam in Frankfurt in January, in Princeton in Febru- 
ary, and at Harvard in March, and she spoke about developments in the study of Islamic 
history in the last fifty years at a conference on the future of history at Wellesley in April. 



43 



Institute for advanced study 



She also taught .1 graduate course on Ismailism at the University of Pennsylvania in the 
first semester, and another on the Islamic adaptation of the Greek tradition of political 
thought it Princeton University in the second semester. Two of her articles appeared in 
print, one on military recruitment in the first centuries of Islamic history, another on the 
symbolic significance of a weapon used in two major revolts. Her book with Professor 
Moreh, The Book of Strangers: Medieval Arabic Graffiti on the Theme of Nostalgia, was 
published in November 1999. Her book with Dr. Zimmermann, The Epistle of Salim b. 
Dhakwan, is now in proof and she compiled the index. Professor Crone continued to serve 
on the editorial board of Arabica and Studia Islamica and to organize the regular Islamic isi 
seminar at the Institute. She also organized a second seminar of a more informal kind in 
which six to eight people met to read Arabic texts on topics related to the formation of 
Sunnism. This was highly rewarding, but only possible because of the unusually large 
number of Islamicists at the Institute this year, so it is unlikely to continue. 

PROFESSOR BENJAMIN ELMAN'S book entitled A Cultural History of Civil Examina- 
tions in Late Imperial China appeared from the University of California Press in January 
2000. It represents the culmination of a fifteen-year project researching the key intellec- 
tual, social, political, and economic features of the civil examination system that made it 
a core element in the cultural continuity and social cohesion of late imperial state and 
literati society in China from 1400 to 1900. Elman also completed a chapter entitled "The 
Socio-Cultural Roles of Literati," for The Cambridge History of China, Volume 9, Part I: 
Early Ch'ing, which is forthcoming. In addition, Elman 's chapter entitled "The Transfor- 
mation of the Civil Service Curriculum Between 1250 and 1400 and the Role of the Yuan 
Dynasty in Classical Studies," is forthcoming in the conference volume for the "Yuan 
Dynasty Classical Studies" International Conference held at Academia Sinica, Taiwan. 

Professor Elman presented lectures in Germany and Japan, in addition to local universi- 
ties. Based on his current research project while at the Institute for Advanced Study, he 
presented the keynote address entitled "From Pre-modern Chinese Natural Studies to 
Modern Science in China" at the conference on "Translating Western Knowledge into 
Late Imperial China," held at the University of Gottingen, Germany, December 6-9, 
1999. "The Changing Role of Historical Knowledge in Ming-Ch'ing Times," was 
presented at the conference "Turning Points in Historical Thinking: A Comparative 
Perspective," organized by SUNY/Buffalo ck Niagara University, August 19-21, 1999. 
"Natural Studies, Philosophy, and Philology in Late Imperial China, 1600-1800" was 
presented at the conference on "Das Naturverstandnis in China und Europa vom 6. Jh. 
v.u.A. bis aim 17. Jh.," held at the Rheine/Westf. Conference Center, Germany, March 
23-25, 2000. Elman also lectured at the Institute for Chinese Studies at Heidelberg Uni- 
versity on March 30th. All of the above confetence presentations will be published in 
the near future. In addition, Elman prepared two special lectures in Japanese on his 
"Civil Examinations" book, which were presented at Kyoto University and Tokyo Uni- 
while he was a Visiting Scholar sponsored by the School of Humanities, Kyoto 
University, January VI 5, 2000. Finally, Elman presented the lecture "Translation and 
Transformation: New Perspectives on the Jesuits in Late Imperial China" tor the Asian 
Pacific American Heritage Month at Rowan University on April 1 1 , 2000. 

While .11 the School erf Historical Studies this year, Elman organized a series erf events 
sponsored by the Mellon Foundation, and with additional kinds generously provided by 
|ohn P. Birkelund and Ladislaus von Hoffmann, under the title "Chinese Studies at the 



44 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



School for Historical Studies, 1999-2000: Seminars and Colloquia on Late Imperial Chi- 
nese Culture and Science," with a "Chinese Studies" website located under the School's 
website. In addition to leading one seminar on his own current research project on Octo- 
ber 4, 1999, Elman also organized three winter-spring colloquia: 1) "Jesuits, Textualism, 
and Science in China and Europe in the 17 th and 18 th Centuries: A Roundtable Discus- 
sion" (January 24, 2000); 2) "Colloquium on Culture and Science in Late Traditional 
China" (March 17-18, 2000); and 3) "Colloquium Comparing Chinese and Greek 
Natural Philosophy and Science, 400 B.C. - A.D. 200" (April 21, 2000), which included 
presentations by Geoffrey Lloyd, Cambridge University, and Nathan Sivin, University of 
Pennsylvania. Elman also presented a talk entitled "Cultutal Prisons or Impartial Testing 
Sites? Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China," for the Friends of the Institute for 
Advanced Study (March 8, 2000) and as part of the East Asian Studies Colloquium at 
the University of Pennsylvania (October 11, 1999). 

In his final year next year, Elman will organize a series of events entitled "East Asian 
Studies at the School of Historical Studies, 2000-2001: Seminars and Colloquia on 
Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Traditional History and Civilization." His 
own research will focus on the influence of late imperial Chinese classical scholarship in 
Tokugawa, Japan (1600-1867) before the Meiji Restoration. 

PROFESSOR IRVING LAVIN continued to serve as a member of the National Committee 
for the History of Art, and as advisor to the city of Modena for a structural fantasy designed 
by the architect Frank Gehry, to the architect Michael Graves for the decorative program of 
a new Federal Court House in Washington, and to the Storm King Art Center, Moun- 
tainville, NY, for the future planning and development of that institution. Professor Lavin 
gave courses of lectures at the Collegio San Carlo in Modena and at the Istituto Italiano per 
gli Studi Filosofici in Naples, and gave a number of lectutes and papers presented at symposia, 
including: Blanton Museum of Art, University of Texas at Austin; Yale University; Accade- 
mia dei Lincei, Rome. Professor Lavin serves on the editotial boards of a number of scholar- 
ly journals, including Quademi d'italianistica, History of European Ideas, Art e Dossier, 
PaUadio, and Rivista di storia dell' architettura e restauro. His publications include books and 
papers in Italian and English: Santa Maria del Fiore. II duomo di Firenze e la Vergine incinta, 
Rome, 1999; [With Matilyn Atonberg Lavin] Liturgia d'amore. Immagini dal Canto dei Canti- 
ci nell'arte di Cimabue, Michalangelo , e Rembrandt, Modena, 1999; "Bernini's Bumbling Bar- 
berini Bees," in J. Imorde, et al., eds., Barocke Inszenierung, Zurich, 1999, 50-71; "Bernini's 
Bust of the Savior and the Problem of the Homeless in Seventeenth-century Rome," Italian 
Quarterly, XXXVII, 2000. 

PROFESSOR JACK E MATLOCK, Jr. delivered a Faculty lecture at the Institute for 
Advanced Study on "Preparing for the 21 st Century? World Politics Today." He also 
lectured at the University of Edinburgh; for World Affairs Councils in Greensboro, NC, Seat- 
tle, Washington, and Washington, DC; for the Santa Fe Council on International Relations; 
the University of Wisconsin-Eau-Claire; the National Bureau of Asian Research; the U.S. 
Institute of Peace; the Princeton Committee on Foreign Relations; the Miller Center at the 
University of Virginia; and at a workshop sponsored by Sit Investments in Palm Springs. Pro- 
fessor Matlock was the keynote speaker for a presentation to the MIT Center for Interna- 
tional Studies held at the National Ptess Club in Washington, DC where he spoke on foreign 
policy, international relations, and national interest. He delivered the Second Annual 
Robert Strausz-Hupe Lecture at the Foreign Policy Research Institute in Philadelphia. He 



45 



Institute for advanced study 



traveled to Stockholm to deliver the keynote address for a conference on Latvia under for- 
eign occupation. He was interviewed by the BBC in connection with a documentary on 
Yeltsin, and by CNN on current Russian matters. 

Professor Matlock participated in several conferences, including ones in Munich on the 
end nt the Cold War and German unification, and in Berlin on the U.S. -Russian-Euro- 
pean Agenda. He also addressed a conference at Hofstra University on Prime Minister 
Thatcher. He took part in workshops sponsored by the Carnegie Endowment for Inter- 
national Peace on National Missile Defense, by the U.S. Institute of Peace on early warn- 
ing of ethnic conflict, and by The Gorbachev Foundation on the future of U.S. and Russ- 
ian relations. In the fall, he participated in a roundtable discussion with Eduard She- 
vardnadze, President of the Republic of Georgia, and served as an election observer for 
the Appeal of Conscience Foundation during the Russian parliamentary elections. 

Articles completed duting the year included essays for The New York Review of Books, For- 
eign Affairs, The New York Times Book Review, and the Los Angeles Times. An op-ed piece 
entitled "Russia Votes: Will Democracy Win?" appeared in The New York Times. He also 
wrote an introduction and a foreword to books by Heyward Isham and Walter Clemens 
and submitted a chapter for inclusion in a book called Turning Points in the Ending of the 
Cold War. 

Professor Matlock continued his research and writing for the two books he is preparing 
with the working titles Understanding Russia and Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War 
Ended. 

PROFESSOR HEINRICH von STADEN presented an invited paper in September 1999 
at a symposium at the University of Heidelberg on theories of anger in Greco-Roman 
antiquity. In early October 1999, he lectured in France (University of Nice) at a collo- 
quium on the Hippocratic Corpus. At the end of October, he gave seminars and lectures 
at Howard University in Washington, DC, as the guest of the Department of Classics, the 
Department of Biology, and the Ralph J. Bunche International Affairs Center. In early 
November 1999, he gave a talk on the Hippocratic Oath to the Friends of the Institute, 
and in late November he gave a lecture on Galen in London at a conference co-spon- 
sored by the University of London and the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medi- 
cine. In early December 1999, he delivered the annual Sheila Kassman Memorial Lec- 
ture at the Institute of Classical Studies in London. In late December he chaired a panel 
on "Technology and the Sciences" at the annual meeting of the American Philological 
Association in Houston. In January 2000 he gave a lecture at UCLA, jointly sponsored 
by the Department of History and the School of Medicine. In February 2000 he lectured 
at Yale University, first on the early history of medical specialization (undet the auspices 
of the School of Medicine), and then on ancient scientific and cultural responses to the 
observation of exceptions to established scientific rules or laws (at the Whitney Human- 
ities Centre). In April, he gave lectures in Italy at the Universities of Florence and 
Milan. He was also invited to give the Fielding H. Garrison lecture in May 2000, at the 
annual meeting of the American Association ot Historians ot Medicine in Fiethesda, 
Maryland. 

His publications in the academic year 1999-2000 included "Rostovtzefl ,i Yale," in Ros- 
tovtxeff c ['Italia, edited by Arnaldo Matcone (Naples: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 1999), 
pp. 63-95; "Reading the Agonal Body," in Medicine and the History of the Body. Proceedings 



46 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



of the 20' h , 2\ A , and 22 nd International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - 
East and West, edited by Yasuo Otsuka, Shizu Sakai, and Shigehisa Kuriyama (Tokyo: 
Ishiyaku EuroAmerica, 1999), pp. 287-294; "Rupture and Continuity: Hellenistic 
Reflections on the History of Medicine," in Ancient Histories of Medicine. Essays in Medical 
Doxography and Historiography in Classical Antiquity, edited by P. J. van der Eijk (Leiden: 
E. j. Brill, 1999), pp. 143-187; "Celsus as Historian?," in the same collection of essays, 
pp. 251-294; "Caelius Aurelianus and the Hellenistic Epoch: Erasistratus, the Empiricists, 
and Herophilus," in Le traite des 'Maladies Aigue's' et des 'Maladies Chroniques' de Caelius 
Aurelianus. Nouvettes approches, edited by Philippe Mudry (Nantes: Institut Universitaire 
de France, 2000), pp. 85-119; a number of articles in encyclopedias; and several book 
reviews. In February 2000, Professor von Staden was elected a member of the 'scientific 
committee' of the Italian journal Filologia antica e modema. He also continued to serve on 
the editorial boards of the journals Configurations: Literature, Science, and Technology and 
Bulletin of the History of Medicine, on the board of managers of the ]oumal of the History of 
Medicine and Allied Sciences, and as a member of a research unit at the Sorbonne (Univer- 
site de Paris-IV) associated with the Comite National de Recherche Scientifique. 

PROFESSOR MARSHALL CLAGETT continued research and writing necessary for 
the completion of Volume Four of his Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book. His work 
has involved an analysis and translation of the major medical papyri primarily from the 
Middle Kingdom (ca. 2040 to 1640 B.C.), the classical period of the literature of 
Pharaonic Egypt, as well as the study of Egyptian techniques of representing nature. This 
will be the last volume of this series. 

PROFESSOR OLEG GRABAR lectured at the David Museum in Copenhagen, and sum- 
marized a symposium on Andalusia at New York University and one on Ottoman art at 
Harvard University. He continued to serve on the grants committee of the Max van 
Berchem Foundation in Geneva and was appointed representative of the Director Gener- 
al of UNESCO for the preservation of the Old City of Jerusaelm. His publications were: 
"The Meaning of Sinan's Architecture," in Aktas-Yasa ed. Mimar Sinan Sempozyomu 
Bildeirileri (Ankara, 1966), pp. 275-83; "The Many Gates of Ottoman Art," 10 th Interna- 
tional Congress of Turkish Art (Geneva, 1999), pp. 19-26; "Aux frontieres de Byzance et 
de l'lslam," E.S. Smirnova ed., Drevne-Russkoe Iskusstovo (Essays for the 100 th Anniver- 
sary of the Birth of A, Grabar) (Moscow, 1999), pp. 111-14; "Qu'est-ce-que l'Art 
Fatimide," M. Barrucand ed., L'Egypte Fatimide, Son Art et Son Histoire (Paris, 1999), pp. 
11-18; "II Sacro recinto di Gerusalemme," KOS, 172-3 (2000), pp. 30-37; "Architecture in 
the Encyclopedia Iranica," Studia Iranica 31 ( 1998), pp. 371-76; "The Implications of Col- 
lecting Islamic Art," in S. Vernoit ed., Discovering Islamic Art (London, 2000), pp. 194- 
200; "Kunst und Kultur in der Welt der Islam," M. Hattastein and P. Delius eds., Islam 
Kunst und Architektur (Koln, 2000), pp. 35-53. 

PROFESSOR CHRISTIAN HABICHT continued to serve on committees of the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society and the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wis- 
senschaften. He was a Ph.D. thesis examiner for the dissertation of Lara O'Sullivan, "The 
Regime of Demetrius of Phalerum in Athens" (University of Western Australia). He was 
elected a Corresponding Member of the Academy of Athens; his inaugural lecture, 



47 



Institute for advanced study 



scheduled tor February 29 ttl , was postponed because of illness and rescheduled tor Octo- 
ber. In Uppsala (Sweden), he participated in May in an international symposium on Kos 
in the hellemstic period and gave a paper, "The Dating of the Koan Monarchoi." 

The Harvard University Press published, in the summer of 1999, a paperback edition of 
his Athens from Alexander to Antony. A French edition, Athenes hellenistique, translated 
by Martine and Denis Knoepfler, was published in March 2000, by Les Belles Lettres, 
Paris. 

His publications included "Stadtische Polemarchen in Thessalien," Hermes 127, 1999, 
254-256; "Zum Vertrag zwischen Latmos und Pidasa," Epigraphica Anatolica 30, 1999, 9- 
10; "Zu griechischen Inschriften aus Kleinasien," Epigraphica Anatolica 31, 1999, 19-29, 
and a review of Jochen Bleicken, Augustus. Eine Biographie, in Rechthistorisches Journal 18, 
1999, 12-22. Six other articles and two reviews were accepted for publication. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE KENNAN, concerned to restrict his writings and statements to 
ones not unseemly for one of his age and condition, devoted most of his scholarly efforts 
in 1999 to the preparation of a small history of the first three generations of his New 
England family. The book is scheduled to be published in October 2000. 

By way of exceptions to this restraint, he gave in the same year two interviews, one with 
Professor Richard Ullman of Princeton University, for publication in The New York 
Review of Books; and the other to Mr. George Seay of the Woodrow Wilson Center, for 
dissemination over National Public Radio. 

He also attended, as guest of honor and speaker, a formal Washington dinner for which 
both the Woodrow Wilson Center and the Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Stud- 
ies figured as hosts. The occasion tor the dinner was the celebration of the 25 th anniver- 
sary of the later institution. 

PROFESSOR PETER PARET has begun work on a new project, a study of the relationship 
between certain forms of modernism in German art and the aesthetics of Adolf Hitler, a sub- 
ject that grew out of his forthcoming book on German modernism. During the academic 
year, he published an expanded version of his Festvortrag at the annual meeting of the 
Fontane- Gesellschaft in Potsdam in September 1999, "Fontane und der nicht gegenwartige 
Clausewitz," in Fontane Blatter, LXIX (2000). His address at the annual meeting of the 
Clausewitz Gesellschaft in Hamburg in August 1999, "Wege der Annaherung an das Werk 
des Generals von Clausewitz," appeared in a special number of the Akademie information of 
the Fuhrungsaiajaemie der Btmaestfehr (1999); and an essay, "The History of Armed Power," 
in The Blaekudl Companion to Historical Thought, ed. Lloyd Kramer and Sara Ma:a, Blackwell, 
( )xfbid. A review essay, "Three Perspectives on Art as a Force in German 1 listory," is forth- 
coming in Central European History. He revised his entry "Clausewitz" tor the second edition 
of the ( )\jirrd Dictionary of International Politics. His introduction to Carl vonClausewit:. Two 
/ titers on Strategy, came out in a third edition by the Army War College Foundation and the 
Command and General Siatl t lollege, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. In June, Professor Pare! 
received the Order of Merit from the German Federal Republic. 

PROFESSOR MORTON WHITE delivered the John Dewey Memorial Lecture. "From 
Rationalism to Holistic Pragmatism," on April 25, 2000, at the annual meeting ot the 
John Dewey Society and the American Educational Research Association in New 



4S 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



Orleans; an expanded version of the lecture will be published as a book. He also deliv- 
ered a talk entitled "Some Reminiscences of Nelson Goodman" at a symposium in mem- 
ory of Professor Goodman at Harvard University on March 18, 2000. His paper, "Peirce's 
Summum Bonum and the Ethical Views of C. I. Lewis and John Dewey," appeared in the 
December 1999 issue of Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. His paper, "The Psy- 
chologism of Hume and Quine Compared," delivered to the Twentieth World Congress 
of Philosophy in 1998, appeared in Modem Philosophy, Volume Seven of the Proceedings 
of the Congress. He continues to work on a critical history of the philosophy of culture 
from Descartes to the twentieth century. 



49 






MAGDA AL-NOWAIHI 
Arabic literature 

Columbia University ■ / 

JUNE ALLISON 

Classics 

The Ohio State University ■ s 

CHRISTIANE ANDERSSON 
Renaissance Art History 
Bucknell University • / 

ROBERT ANTL1FF 

Art History 

Duke University • s 

MARTIN AURELL 

Medieval History 

I Iniversite' de Poitiers • / 

ALISON BEACH 

Medieval History 

Institute for Advanced Study • a 

NIKOLAI BOLKHOVITINOV 

I Ustory o) International Relations, History of the USA 

and Russia 

Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 

HARRY BONE 

Islamic History 

Institute for Advanced Study • a 

WARD BRIGGS 
Classical Tradition 
I Iniversity of South Carolina 

< YNTHIA BROKAW 

Late Imperial Chinese History' (Ming and Qing 

Dynasties) 

University of Oregi >n 

PINGYI CHU 
t Ihrnese I Itstory 
Academia Sini< a, raiwan ■ vs 

KEVIN CLINTON 

Greek Epigral>ln 

( brnell I Iniversity n 

OLIVIA REMI1 I I INSTABLE 

I listory of Medieval Near East and Mediterranean World 
i Iniversity "t None I )ame • vj ■ a 



PETER DINZELBACHER 

Medieval Studies 

University of Stuttgart and University of Vienna 

SUSAN DOWNEY 
Archaeology, Art History, Classics 
University of California, Los Angeles ■ / 

NOEL DUVAL 

Christian Art and Archaeology 

La Sorbonne, Paris • s 

THEODORE EVERGATES 

Medieval History 

Western Maryland College • s 

VALERIE FLINT 

Medieval Ecclesiastical History 

University of Hull • vf 

SARAH FRASER 

Art History (Chinese Painting) 

Northwestern University ■ vf 

MARY LOUISE GILL 
Ancient Greek Phibsophy 
University of Pittsburgh 

RICHARD GRASSBY 

Early Modem British History 
Independent Scholar 

JASPER GRIFFIN 
Greek and Latin Literature 
University of Oxford • s 

MIRIAM GRIFFIN 

Ancient History 
University of Oxford ■ vs 

ROGER HART 

Traditional Chinese History and History of Science 

Stanford University ■ n 

JANE HATHAWAY 
Near Eastern Studies 
The Ohio State University • s 

JULIE HESSLER 

Soviet History; Twentieth -century History 

Universm of Oregon 



I, mi i Vlsitoi ,1 Research Assistant n NEH Supported 



50 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



DAVID HOLLINGER 

United States History 

University of California, Berkeley • s 

C. STEPHEN JAEGER 
Medieval German Literature 
University of Washington ■ n 

CHRISTOPHER ANDREW JONES 
Anglo-Saxon Church History 
The Ohio State University 

BIRGIT KRAWIETZ 

Islamic Law, Islam and Modernity 
University of Tubingen 

BHADR1RAJU KRISHNAMURTI 
Historical Linguistics 
University of Hyderabad 

HELEN LANG 
Ancient Philosophy 
Trinity College • s 

JOHN LEDONNE 
Russian History 
Harvard University 

PATRICIA LEIGHTEN 

Late Nineteenth- and early Twentieth-century Art and 

Politics; Modernism 

Duke University • s 

CHRISTOPHER MELCHERT 

Islamic History 

Institut Franc.ais des Etudes Arabes de Damas • n 

VIVIAN NUTTON 

History of Medicine 

Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, 

London • s 

STEVEN PINCUS 

Early Modem British History 

University of Chicago 

DAVID PORTER 

Eighteenth-century Literary and Cultural History 

University of Michigan 

HANQI 

History of Science and Late Imperial Chinese History 

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing ■ s 

GIUSEPPE RAGONE 
Greek History and Epigraphy 
University of Basilicata, Potenza • s 



SULHINISO RAHMATULLAEVA 

Islamic Art and Culture 

Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan 

SARA RAPPE 

Classics 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor • s 

CHASE ROBINSON 

Islamic History 

University of Oxford ■ f ■ vs 

CYNTHIA ROBINSON 

Art History 

Institute for Advanced Study • a 

NORMAN ROSE 

International History 

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel 

THOMAS RUTTEN 

History of Medicine 

Institute for Advanced Study • a 

NINA SEREBRENNIKOV 

Northern European Art of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth 

Centuries 

Davidson College • / 

BETTE TALVACCHIA 

Art History 

University of Connecticut 

VERA TOLZ 

Russian History 
University of Salford • / 

JORG TRAEGER 

Art History 

Universitat Regensburg • / 

THOMAS WILSON 

Traditional Chinese Cultural History 

Hamilton College 

JOCELYN WOGAN-BROWNE 

Medieval Studies 
University of Liverpool • / 



/ First Term • s Second Term ■ v Visitor ■ a Research Assistant • n NEH Supported 



SI 



Institute for advanced study 






The following is a calendar of events sponsored by 
the School of Historical Studies 



Islamic History Seminar: "Gender Practice, 
Three Mamluk Views of Futuwwa" 
MEGAN REID, Princeton University 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "The Forma- 
tion of the Sunni Community: The Islamic 
Sciences" 

CHRISTOPHER MELCHERT, Member, 
Institute for Advanced Study 

Chinese Studies Seminar "Rethinking the 
Transition from 'Chinese Science' to 'Modern 
Science' in China" 
BENJAMIN ELMAN, Mellon Visiting 
Professor, Institute for Advanced Study 



1 listorical Studies Colloquium: "Excavating 
the Past: 300 B.C. and A.D. 1937: The 
Temple of Zeus Megistos at Duta-Europos" 
SUSAN DOWNEY, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Princeton Aft History Colloquium: "Alterna- 
tive to Perspective in Sixteenth-century 
( Central Italy" 
MARCIA HALL, Temple l/nwersity 



I listorical Studies i Colloquium: "Eleanoi ol 
Aquitaine (1124-1204) and Hei Modem 
Historians: The Destruction of .i Myth" 
MARTIN AURELL, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Medieval Seminar "Pandocneion, Fundiaj 

and Fondaco: Problems ot Transition and 

Terminology" 

( >] IV1A REMIE CONSTABLE, Member, 

Institute for Advanced Study 



Chinese Studies Seminar: "The Publishing 
Industry and the Reading Public in Late 
Imperial China" 

CYNTHIA BROKAW, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "An Ampler 
Ether, A Diviner Air: Picturing Space in Early 
Modern Europe" 

NINA SEREBRENNIKOV, Member, Institute 
for Advanced Study 



Islamic History Seminar: "Medina in an 
Eighteenth-centurv European Illustration" 
OLEG GRABAR, Professor Emeritus, Institute 
for Advanced Study 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "Some Results 
of the Study of Russian America, 1732-1867" 
NIKOLAI BOLKHOVITINOV, Member, 
Institute for Advanced Study 



Medieval Seminar: "A Nun's Letter 

t Collection from Twelth-century Admont" 

ALISON BEACH, Research Assistant, Institute 

for Advanced Study 



I listorical Studies Colloquium: "Researching 
the Churchill and Weizmann Biographies' 1 

NORMAN ROSE, Member. Institute for 
Advanced Study 

Princeton Alt Himoo. Colloquium: "David's 

Sacre and the Performative'' 

TODD PORTERFIELD, Princeton Diversity 



52 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



Chinese Studies Seminar: "Reading Essays 
and Punctuating Classical Texts" 
BENJAMIN ELAMN, Mellon Visiting 
Professor, Institute for Advanced Study 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "The Role 

of Perspective in Raphael's Disputa del 

Sacramento'" 

JORG TRAEGER, Member, Institute for 

Advanced Study 

School of Historical Studies Lecture: 
"Cut Your Glosses: New Evidence for 
Language Learning in Late Antiquity" 
JAMES CLACKSON, University of Cambridge 

Medieval Seminar: "The Coronation of 
Harold in the Bayeux Tapestry" 
BARBARA ENGLISH, Visiting Fellow, 

Princeton University 

Islamic History Seminar: "The Traditional 
Buildings of the Merv Oasis" 
GEORGINA HERMANN, University College, 
London 

School of Historical Studies Lecture: 

"Ancient and Medieval Merv: A City on the 

Great Silk Road" 

GEORGINA HERMANN, University College, 

London 



Chinese Studies Seminar: "Ritualizing 

Confucius" 

THOMAS WILSON, Member, Institute for 

Advanced Study 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "Work in 
Progress: 'tel en latin, tel en rutnan:': 
Women's Vernacular Theology in Anglo- 
Norman England?" 

JOCELYN WOGAN-BROWNE, Member, 
Institute for Advanced Study 



Medieval Seminar: "La Cour Plantagenet 
(1154-1204): Entourage, Savoir et Civilite" 
MARTIN AURELL, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Chinese Studies Seminar: "Quantifying 
Ritual: Political Cosmology, Courtly Music, 
and Precision Calculation in Seventeenth- 
century China" 

ROGER HART, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Stud\ 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "The Central 
Middle Ages as Europe's 'Achsenzeit'. 
Problems of Approach" 
PETER D1NZELBACHER, Member, Institute 
for Advanced Study 



Princeton Art History Colloquium: 

"The Emergence of Collage in the Context of 

Late Nineteenth-century Paris" 

JACK SPECTOR, Rutgers University 

Islamic History Seminar: "Medieval Islamic 

Historiography" 

CHASE ROBINSON, Member, Institute for 

Advanced Stud\ 



Historical Studies Colloquium: 

"Russian National Identity: Between 

Empire and the West" 

VERA TOLZ, Member, Insritute for Advanced 

Study 



Medieval Seminar: "Our Steward, St. Jerome" 
JOCELYN WOGAN-BROWNE, Member, 
Insritute for Advanced Study 



School of Historical Studies Lecture: "The 

Pope Who Made Our Millennium: Gregory 

XIII and the Art of Calendrical Politics in the 

Counter-Reformation" 

NICOLA COURTRIGHT, Amnerst College 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "Cristoforo dei 
Buondelmonti, Vytautas of Lithuania, and the 
First Modem Map of Constantinople" 
GIUSEPPE RAGONE, Member, Insritute for 
Advanced Study 



53 



Institute for advanced study 



Priru eton Art History Colloquium: 
"p >1 l.i/hVilla: Futurism and the Crowd" 
CHRISTINE POGGI, University of Pennsylvania 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "Human 
Anxieties and the Evil Eye in Islam" 
BIRGIT KRAWIETZ, Member, Institute f > 
Advanced Stud\ 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "The Basic 
Mechanism of Sound Change: The Neogram- 
marian Controversy" 

BHADRIRAJU KRISHAMURTI, Member, 
Institute for Advanced Study 

Chinese Studies Seminar: "Jesuits, 
Textualism, and Science in China and Europe 
in the 17* and 18 ,h Centuries" 
Roundtahle Discussion with ANTHONY 
GRAFTON, Princeton University, ROGER 
HART, MembeT, Institute for Advanced Study, 
R. PO-CHIA HSIA, Princeton University, 
WILLARD PETERSON, Princeton University, 
and BENJAMIN ELMAN, Me/Ion Visiting 
Professor, Institute for Advanced Study 



Islamic History Seminar: "Ninth-century Views 
ot Taking Payment for Religious Services" 
CHRISTOPHER MELCHERT, Member, 
Institute for Advanced Study 

School of Historical Studies Lecture: 
"Charlemagne's Court Library Re-visited" 
DONALD A. BULLOUGH, St. Andrews 
University 



I listorical Studies i lolloquium: "China and 
the Invention of British Aesthetic Culture" 
DAVID PORTER, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Medieval Seminar: "Animal Trials in the Late 
Middle Ages" 

I'l 1 1 R PINZELBACHER, Member, Institute 
for Advanced Study 



Princeton Art History Colloquium: "Recon- 
sidering the Raising of the Cross: The Real 
Significance of Rubens' Roman Sojourn" 
CYNTHIA LAWRENCE, Temple University 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "B.L. Gilder- 
sleeve and the Oscillations of American 
Classical Scholarship" 
WARD BRIGGS, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Chinese Studies Seminar: "Chinese Literati's 
Attitudes to Western Science: Transition 
from the Late Kangxi Period to the 
Mid-Qianlong Period (ca. 1700-1760)" 
HAN QI, Member, Institute for Advanced 
Study 

Islamic History Seminar: "Modern Muslim 
Discussions of Criteria of Death" 
BIRGIT KRAWIETZ, Member, Institute for 

Advanced Study 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "Returning 
the Sacrifices to Confucius: The Grand Feast 
and the Meaning of Confucianism" 
THOMAS WILSON, Member, Institute for 

Advanced Studs 



Chinese History Seminar: "The Editions of 
the Gezhi Congshu Collectanea" 
Discussion led by BENJAMIN ELMAN, 
Mellon Visiting Professor, Institute for Advanced 
Study 

Medieval Seminar: "The Aristocratic Family 
in Medieval France" 
THEODORE EVERGATES, Member, 
Institute for Advanced Study 



Princeton Art Him. in Colloquium: "Losl in 
Translation: Clement Greenberg, An-elm 
Kiefer and the Subject of History" 
LISA SALTZMAN, Bryn Maur College 



54 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "Rewriting 
Arab History, 1516-1800" 
JANE HATHAWAY, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Two-day symposium on "Culture and Science 

in Late Traditional China" 

"Producing Medical Knowledge Through 

Cases: History, Evidence, and Action" 

CHARLOTTE FURTH, University of 

Southern California 

"Domestic Architecture and the Engineering 

of Social Order in Late Imperial China" 

FRANCESCA BRAY, University California, 

Santa Barbara 

"Disputing Confucius: Debates on the Status 

of the Sage in the State and Family Cults of 

Confucius" 

THOMAS WILSON, Member, Institute for 

Advanced Study 

"The Jesuits as Missionaries of Science: 

Euclid's Elements in Seventeenth-century 

China" 

ROGER HART, Member, Institute for 

Advanced Study 

"Mathematical Sciences in the Kanxi 

Emperor's Court" 

Ql HAN, Member, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

"Boundaries Crossing: Western Astronomy in 

Confucian China, 1600-1800" 

PINGYI CHU, Visitor, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

"On the History of the Book in Late Imperial 

China" 

CYNTHIA BROKAW, Member, Institute for 

Advanced Study 

"New Answers to Old Questions on the 

Late Imperial Chinese Civil Examinations, 

1400-1900" 

BENJAMIN ELMAN, Mel/on Visiting 

Professor, Institute for Advanced Study 

"In Search of Old Peking" 

SUSAN NIQUIN, Princeton University 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "Commerce in 

Culture: The Sibao Publishing Industry, 1663- 

1246" 

CYNTHIA BROKAW, Member, Institute for 

Advanced Study 



Medieval Seminar "Suspect Doctrines and 
Intellectual Freedom in Late Medieval 
England: Some Instances of Book Ownership 
and Patronage" 

KATHRYN KERBY-FULTON, Visiting Fellow, 
Princeton University 



Islamic History Seminar: "An Uncanonical 
Prayer Denounced by Twelfth-century Scholars" 
DANIELLA TALMON-HELLER, Princeton 

University 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "Place and 
Extension: The Problems and Language of 
Ancient Physics (especially Aristotle)" 
HELEN LANG, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "The Grand 
Strategy of the Russian Empire 1700-1825" 
JOHN LEDONNE, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Medieval Seminar: "The Lost Love Letters of 
Aberlard and Heloise" 
STEPHEN JAEGER, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Princeton Art History Colloquium: "Mimesis 
and Ideation in Vermeer's Home" 
H. PERRY CHAPMAN, University of 
Delaware 



Islamic History Seminar: "A Poem by Abu 

Nuwas" 

MAGDA AL-NOWAIHI, Visitor, Institute /or 

Advanced Study 



Chinese Studies Seminar: "Colloquium: 
Comparing Chinese and Greek Natural Phils- 
ophy and Science, 400 B.C.-A.D 200" 
SIR GEOFFREY LLOYD, Cambridge 
University, and NATHAN SIVIN, University of 
Pennsylvania 



55 



Institute for advanced study 



Islamic History Seminar: "The Schi 
Gundeshapur" 

VIVIAN NUTTON, Member, Institute for 
Advanced Study 



Islamic History Seminar: "Military and 

Society in the Early Islamic World" 

HUGH KENNEDY, University of St. Andrews 



Islamic History Seminar: "The Development 
of the Funduq" 

OLIVIA REMIE CONSTABLE, Member, 
Institute for Advanced Study 



Chinese Studies Seminar: "The Practice of 
the Imperial Ritual of Sacrifice in China" 
THOMAS WILSON, Member, Institute /en- 
Advanced Study 



In addition to the events listed above some groups also met informally on a regular basis. These 
UK luded weekly gatherings over lunch for Members and Visitors in art history, who met to discuss 
.in going projec ts and specific problems encountered in their research. Some of the Islamicists also 
met regularly for discussion of selected readings. Although they do not appear on the above list, 
these informal gatherings played an important role in the intellectual life of the School. 



56 




Beyond any production of mathematical papers, this 
academic year has been extremely profitable to my 
mathematical education. The program has been 
very rich and was for me a unique opportunity to grasp 
some aspects of the theory which were very remote 
from my original background." 



— Member, Schoo/ of Mathematics 






ENRICO BOMB1ERI, IBM von Neumann Professor 

JEAN BOURGAIN 

PIERRE DELIGNE 

ROBERT P. LANGLANDS, Hermann Weyl Professor 

ROBERT D. MacPHERSON 

THOMAS SPENCER 

AVI WIGDERSON 






ARM AND BOREL 
ATLE SELBERG 



The largest program in the School of Mathematics for 1999-2000 was the special year in 
the analytic theory of automorphic forms and L-functions. This program was organized by 
P. Sarnak of Princeton University, H. Iwaniec of Rutgers University, who was the Distin- 
guished Visiting Professor for the year, and School Faculty members E. Bombieri and 
R. Langlands. The special year focused on the analytic theory of GL(2) automorphic func- 
tions and its application to classical problems in number theory; spectral problems in quan- 
tum chaos; and the analytic theory of general L-functions such as the Riemann Hypothe- 
sis. (There was some material on automorphic functions for other groups, but this was 
stressed less. This will be the subject of a special year at the Institute in 2000-2001.) 

Aside from informal interactions, the main activity of this special year was a series of 
lectures held three times per week, and designed to be accessible to a fairly general math- 
ematical audience. This was a very successful approach, since modular forms tend to be 
considered by mathematicians coming from very different scientific backgrounds. Lec- 
tures were given by H. Iwaniec, P. Sarnak, E. Kowalski, D. Bump, B. Conrey, F. Shahidi, 
J. Cogdell, W. Kohnen, H. Jacquet, K. Soundararajan, D. Ramakrishnan, H. Kim, 
S. Friedberg, R. Murty, D. Goldfeld, H. Stark, N. Katz, A. Panchishkin, M. Furusawa, 
P. Michel, J. VanderKam, S. Boecherer, P. Cohen, S. Zhang, W. Li, Y. Choie, A. Perelli, 
A. Zaharescu, S. Wolpert, Z. Mao, T. Watson, S. Johansson, S. Kudla, R. Heath-Brown, 
S. Rallis, W. Luo, and E. Coins. 

L. Lafforgue of CNRS - Orsay gave a series of three lectures on his spectacular recent 
proof of the Langlands correspondence over function fields. Z. Rudnick of Tel Aviv Uni- 
versity gave a series of two lectures on number theoretic problems in quantum chaos. 
P. Deligne gave a series of two lectures showing how to get information about trigono- 
metric sums, a very concrete object, 1-adic cohomology, usually seen as rather abstract. 



59 



Institute for advanced study 



[ Bombieri gave a series of four lectures entitled "Some elementary remarks on the 
Guinand'Weil explicit formula." His approach to the Riemann Hypothesis is to give 
lower hounds for the number of zeros of the Zeta function oft of Riemann's line, while the 
usual methods i il analytic number theory put upper bounds on the number of zeros off the 
line. 

On the research front, Shahidi and Kim, experts on the Langlands-Shahidi method, felic- 
itously combined for the special year with Cogdell and Piatetski-Shapiro, experts on con- 
verse theorems, proved some spectacular new cases of functoriality, with applications to 
the Ramanujan conjectures. Cogdell, Piatctski-Shapiro, and Sarnak solved Hilbert's 1 l ,h 
problem over a number field. 

Vladimir Voevodsky, who is at the Institute on a multi-year appointment, ran a special 
year entitled "A' homotopy theory." In the beautiful subject, a theory is developed in 
algebraic geometry that mimics usual homotopy theory from topology, with the complex 
line replacing the unit interval, except that there are two different kinds of homotopy cir- 
cles: the complex line minus a point and the complex line with two points identified. 
This program will continue in the year 2000-2001. The program will present the mate- 
rial needed to understand Voevodsky's celebrated proof of the Milnor Conjecture. 

The A' homotopy theory program consisted of two courses and a weekly seminar. The 
first course, entitled "Lectures on Motivic Cohomology," was given by Voevodsky him- 
self. This course concerned the construction and properties of the triangulated category 
of motives. The second course, "Lectures on Norm Varieties," was given by Markus Rost 
of The Ohio State University, who was a Member for the year. This course concerned 
various constructions related to algebraa K-theory, including Steenrod operations and 
cobordism. The seminar associated with this special program was on Homotopy Theory 
(the ordinary topological kind). This was the first time in many years that homotopy 
theory was a serious pan ol the program at the Institute. Speakers were D. Christensen, 
C. Re:k, F. Morel, G. Carlsson, M. Bendersky, A. Neeman, R Hu, and H. Miller. 

This academic year was the first year that our new Professor, Avi Wigderson, was in resi- 
dence. His specialty is theoretical computer science and discrete mathematics. A weekly 
seminar was held on Combinatorics and Complexity Theory, run by Wigderson. This was 
a continuation of our now long-standing weekly seminar on discrete mathematics. Speak- 
ers were M. Saks, R. Ra:, E. Fischer, A. Razborov, H. Ben-Sasson, J. Kahn, L. Tfevisan, L. 
valiant, E. Friedgut, D. Aharonov.J. Beck, A. Samorodnitsky, Y. Peres, N. Alon, M. Sudan, 
1. Hast ad, R. Shaltiel, P. Winkler, B. Sudakov, A. Yao, and R. Impaglia::o. In the year 
2000-2001, there will be a special year on ( 'omplexity Theory, run In Wigderson 

Additional weekly seminars included the Analysis Seminal organized by 1 Bourgain and 
n< er, the joint Princeton/IAS/Rutgers Nonlinear Analysis Seminar organized by S. 
Klainerman, II Bezis, and |. Bourgain, and as usual, the Members Seminar, whose field 
of mathematics < hanges every week. The Princeton/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory Sem- 
inar was in abeyance tor the year, because all of its organizers were participating in the 
mi on Modular Forms. 

The Marston Morse Lectures were given by ML Hopkins of MIT They were entitled 
"Modular tonus, theta functions, and algebraic topology." It was a tale ot a remarkable 



<V 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



cohomology theory that is associated with a family of elliptic curves. By-ptoducts of the 
theory are an explanation for congruencies involving modular forms, and computations 
of homotopy groups of spheres that are more extensive than was possible before. 

A new lecture series was inaugurated: The Ruth and Irving Adler Expository Lectures. 
These were endowed by Professor Adler of the School of Natural Sciences, in honor of 
his parents. It is anticipated that this series will be given annually. The object of this 
series is to have clear expositions of mathematicals, rather than to insist on the newest 
results. The first lecture was "Modules over Nonunital Rings," a lecture by D. Quillen of 
Oxford. 

In April, there were two workshops at the Institute which were held in partnership with 
the Clay Mathematics Institute and the School of Mathematics. The first of these was 
on Localization and Lyapunov Exponents, organized by J. Bourgain and T. Spencer. The 
second workshop, on Recent Trends in Analytic Number Theory, was organized by 
E. Bombieri and H. Iwaniec. 

Much of the academic activity of the School of Mathematics revolves around informal 
discussions and collaborations among the Members and with the Faculty. The School 
continued to refine its mechanisms to encourage these interactions. This year, we began 
a policy of encouraging home pages for members on our Web site, so that members will 
know something about each other's work. In addition, we continued and enlarged the 
practice of having short talks by all postdoctoral Members at the beginning of the year, 
with an exposition of some aspect of their research interests. 

In a bold experiment in mathematical outreach, R. Langlands delivered a series of lectures 
for a general non-mathematical audience entitled, "The Practice of Mathematics." There 
were eight lectures in the fall and eight lectures in the spring. They started with classical 
constructions for Euclid, then the construction with ruler and compass of the regular hepta- 
decagon by Gauss and moved through Kummer's work on Fermat's theorem. These lectures 
have been videotaped, and both notes and cassettes ate available. Avi Wigderson gave a 
Faculty Lecture entitled "The digital envelope - a crash course in modern cryptography", 
also intended for a general non-mathematical audience. 

In May, Jean Bourgain was elected as a foreign member of the Polish Academy of Sci- 
ences; in the month of June, he was elected a foreign associate of the French Academy of 
Sciences. 

The main building of the School of Mathematics has been renamed Simonyi Hall, after 
Charles Simonyi, Distinguished Engineer, Microsoft Corporation, and Trustee of the 
Institute, in recognition of his generous support of the programs of the School of Math- 
ematics. 



61 



Institute for advanced study 






JINHO BAIK 

Jntegrable Systems and Random Permutations 

Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences • i 

EUGEN1 BALKOVSKY 
Statistical Theory of Turbulence 
Wei:mann Institute of Science, Israel 

SIEGFRIED BOCHERER 

Modular Forms 

Universitat Mannheim, Germany 

J. DANIEL CHRISTENSEN 

Algebraic Topology 

The Johns Hopkins University 

JAMES COGDELL 
Automorphic Forms 
Oklahoma State University 

PAULA COHEN 

Number Theory; Non-commutative Geometry 
Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 
France ■ s 

CATERINA CONSANI 
Arithmetic Algebraic Geometry 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

RAPHAEL DANCH1N 

Harmonic and Numerical Analysis 
University Paris 6, France 

INGRID DAUBECHIES 

Applied Harmonic Analysis , Wavelets 

Princeton University • / 

CALIN DIACONU 

Analytic Number Theory, Automorphic Forms 

Brown University 

DAM1ANO FOSCH1 

Nonlinear Wave Equation*, 
I n I Inivetsity 

JOHN FRIEDLANDER 
Analytic Number Theory 
University of Toronto, s * arborough 



MASAAKI FURUSAWA 
Automorphic Forms and L-functions 
Osaka City University, Japan 

WEE TECK GAN 

Representation Theory, Automorphic Forms 

Institute for Advanced Study • i 

EDRAY GOINS 

Elliptic Curves, Number Theory 

Stanford University 

MICHAEL GOLDSTEIN 
Nonlinear Equations , Spectra! Theory 
University of Toronto 

MARK GORESKY 
Geometry, Automorphic Forms 
Institute for Advanced Study 

LEONID GURVITS 

Optimisation 

NEC Research Institute 

DENNIS HEJHAL 

Analytic Number Theory, Modular Forms 

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis • s 

DAVID INGERMAN 

Inverse Problems and Approximations 

Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences 

ALEXANDRU IONESCU 
Analysis on Lie Groups 
Princeton University 

HENRYK IWAN1EC 
Analytic Number Theory 
Rutgers University • dvp 

HERVE JACQUET 
Automorphic Forms 
Columbia University ■ v 

STEFAN JOHANSSON 
Automorphic Forms 
Rutgers University 



f 1 11 i i,nn i Second Term Jvp Distinguished Visiting riofeuoi vVisitoi 
• i Veblen Research Instructorship 



62 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



MIRIAM KANTOROVITZ 

Commutative Algebra 

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 

NICHOLAS KATZ 
Arithmetical Algebraic Geometry 
Princeton University 

HENRY KIM 
Automorphic L-functions 
Southern Illinois University 

ANDREW KLAPPER 
Cryptograph and Coding Theory 
University of Kentucky • vf 

NATALIA KOMAROVA 

Nonlinear Systems and Pattern Formation 

University of Warwick, United Kingdom 

LEONID KORALOV 

Random Flows, Turbulence, Hamiltonian Systems 
Institute for Advanced Study 

EMMANUEL KOWALSK1 
Automorphic Forms and L-functions 
Institute for Advanced Study • i 

ALEXANDER KUZNETSOV 

Algebraic Geometry 

Independent Moscow University, Russia 

WEN-CHING LI 

Automorphic Forms, Graph Theory 

The Pennsylvania State University • s 

ELON LINDENSTRAUSS 

Ergodic Theory; Topological Dynamics 

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel 

ZHENGYU MAO 
Automorphic Forms 
Rutgers University 

GEORGIY MEDVEDEV 

Applications of Partial Differential Equations 

Boston University ■ i 

PHILIPPE MICHEL 

Analytic Number Theory, Modular Forms 
Universite Montpellier II, France 



WERNER MULLER 

Geometric Analysis , Automorphic Forms 

Universitat Bonn, Germany • s 

M. RAM MURTY 
Number Theory 
McGill University • / 

MELVYN NATHANSON 

Number Theory 

Lehman College, City University of New York • v 

DMITRI ORLOV 

Algebra 

Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russia 

ALEXEI PANCHISHKIN 

P-adic L-functions and Automorphic Forms 

Institut Fourier, France ■ / 

ALBERTO PERELLI 

Analytic Number Theory; Zeta Functions 

University of Genova, Italy ■ s 

ILYA PIATETSKI-SHAPIRO 
Automorphic Forms and L-functions 
Yale University 

HARU PINSON 

Mathematical Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study • a 

DINAKAR RAMAKRISHNAN 
L-functions of Curves and Automorphic Forms 
California Institute of Technology 

ALEXANDER RAZBOROV 
Combinatorics, Theoretical Computer Science, 
Complexity Theory 
Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russia ■ v 

OMER REINGOLD 

Cryptograph, Computational Complexity 

Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel • v 

CHARLES REZK 
Homotopy Theory 
Northwestern University 

MARKUS ROST 

Algebraic K-theory, Galois Cohomology 

Universitat Regensburg, Germany 



/First Term ■ s Second Term V Visitor • i Veblen Research lnstructorship 

63 



Institute for advanced study 



ALEX SAMORODNITSKY 

Coding Theory, Complexity, Extremal Set Theory 

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel 

PETER SARNAK 

Anahtic Number Theory, Automorphic Forms 

Princeton I Iniversity 

RAINER SCHULZE-PILLOT 
Quadratic Forms, Automorphic Forms 
Universitat des Saarlandes, Germany 

CHRISTOPHER SKINNER 
Number Theory 
Princeton University 

MARTIN SOMBRA 

Intersection Theory of Arithmetic Varieties 

Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Argentina 

KANNAN SOUNDARARAJAN 

Number Theory, Modular Forms 
Princeton University 

HAROLD STARK 

Analytic and Algebraic Number Theory, Modular 
Forms, Transcendence and Interrelations 
University of California, San Diego • v 

BENNY SUDAKOV 
Combinatorics 
K I Aviv University • i 

MICHAEL SULLIVAN 
Symplectic Geometry 
Stanford University 

MARIO SZEGEDY 
Combinatorics, Complexity Theory 
AT&T Shannon Labs 

PETER TRAPA 

Representation Theory of Reductive Groups 

Institute tur Advanced Study 



ALEXANDER VISHIK 
Quadratic Forms , K-theory 
McMaster University ■ s 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY 

K-theory and Arithmetical Algebraic Geometry 

Institute for Advanced Study 

CHARLES WEIBEL 

Algebraic K-theory and MotiVic Cohomology 

Rutgers University • v 

ANDREW WILES 
Algebraic Number Theory 
Princeton University ■ s 

ALEXANDRU ZAHARESCU 

Number Theory 
Mc( nil University 

UMBERTO ZANN1ER 

Diophantine Approximation 

Instituto Universitario di Architettura di Venezia, 

Italy ■ s 



I reran i VUitoi i Veblen Research Instructorehip 



64 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMA'l 
RECORD OF EVl 



The following is a calendar of events sponsored by 
the School of Mathematics 






Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"An Improved Exponential-time Algorithm for k 
CNF Satisfiability" 
MICHAEL SAKS, Rutgers University 

Septeml 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"Overview of Analytic GL(2) Theory and 

Applications" 

HENRYK IWANIEC, Institute for Advanced Study 

"Overview of Analytic Theory of L-functions and ' 

Applications" 

PETER SARNAK, Institute for Advanced Study 

Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 

"Operator Scaling and Approximating the Mixed 

Discriminant" 

LEONID GURVITS, NEC Institute 

Princeton-IAS-Rutgers Nonlinear Analysis Seminar: 
"Lyapounov Exponents, Quasi-periodic Localization 
and Semi-algebraic Sets" 
JEAN BOURGAIN, Institute for Advanced Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Number Theoretic Problems in "Quantum Chaos"" 
ZEEV RUDNICK, Tel Aviv University 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: "Spec- 
tral Formulae for the Fourier Coefficients of Modular 
Forms and Applications" 

EMMANUEL KOWALSKI, Institute for Advanced 
Study 

"Rankin-Selberg L-functions on GL(n)" 
DANIEL BUMP, Stanford University 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Exponential Separation of Quantum and Classical 
Communication Complexity, and Some Geometrical 
Properties of the Sphere S n " 
RAN RAZ, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"On Quantum Ergodicity for Toral Automorphisms" 
ZEEV RUDNICK, Tel Aviv University 

Homotopy Theory Seminar: "Phantom Maps" 

J. DANIEL CHRISTENSEN, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Homotopy Theory Seminar: "On Analogies Between 
Algebraic and Real Cobordism" 
IGOR KRIZ, University of Michigan 

Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Mean-values of Zeta and L-functions: An Overview" 
BRIAN CONREY, Institute for Advanced Study 

"Trigonometric Sums and 1-adic Cohomology: 

An Overview" 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Institute for Advanced Study 

Analysis Seminar: "Universality and the 2 

Dimensional Ising Model" 

HARU PINSON, Institute for Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "Total Positivity Criteria and 
Matrix Factorization" 

SERGEY FOMIN, University of Michigan and 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



65 



Institute for advanced study 



Automoiphic Forms anj L-functions Seminar: 
"Another Approach to L-functions with 
Applications: A Survey" 
FREYDOON SHAHIDI, Purdue University 

Homotopy Theory Seminar: "Some Dualities in the 

Stable I [omotopy ( ategory" 

CHARLES REZK, Institute for Advanced Study 

Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic ( ohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



Automoiphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

" Ibeplitz Identities, Shur Functions, and Unitary 

Statistics" 

DANIEL BUMP, Stanford University 

"Converse Theorems" 

JAMES COGDELL, Institute for Advanced Study 

Special Homotopy Theory Seminar: "Operads of 

Braids and Trees" 

JACK MORAVA, Johns Hopkins University 

Analysis Seminar: "Symmetrized Random 
Permutations" 

JINHO BAIK, Princeton University and Institute for 
Advanced Study 

Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Graph Embeddings via the Regularity Lemma" 
ELDAR FISCHER, Tel Aviv University 

Memhers Seminar: "Complexity of Algebraic Proof 

Systems 

ALEXANDER RAZBOROV, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Automorphu Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"i . mill I tun il Values <>i Spinor Zeta-function" 
WINIFRllil i kc )1 1NEN, Heidelberg University 

Homotopy rheory Seminar: "Adams Spectral 
Sequence and ( ohomology Invariants >>i Quadratic 
Forms" 

FAB1EN MOREL, University of Paris VII 



Let uircs on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



Automoiphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"Trigonometric Sums and 1-adic Cohomology 

(continued)" 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Institute for Advanced Study 

"Gelfand Pairs and L-functions" 

HERVE JACQUET, Institute for Advanced Study 

Automoiphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"www.monodromy.edu" 

NICHOLAS KATZ, Institute for Advanced Study 

Special Homotopy Theory Seminar 
"Segal's Conjecture and Other Descent Problems in 
the Equivariant Stable Homotopy Theory" 
GUNNAR CARLSSON, Stanford University 



Analysis Seminar: "Pointwise Theorems for 
Amenable Groups" 

ELON L1NDENSTRAUSS, The Hebrew Universe 
of Jerusalem, Israel 

Members Seminar: "Modular Forms in Homotopy 

Theory" 

CHARLES REZK, Institute for Advanced Study 

Automoiphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Mollifying L-functions" 
KANNAN SOUNDARARAJAN, Institute for 
Advanced Study 

Homotopy Theory Seminar: "The Adams-Novikov 

Spectral Sequence" 

CHARLES REZK, Institute for Advanced Studs 

Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Stu^h 

Motivic Cohomology 1 ectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Analysis Seminar: "Averages oi Shifts of 
Plurisubharmonic Functions, Eliminations of 
Variables in Inequalities, and Anderson I ocalizatian 
ol Eigen Functions" 

MM 1 1. Ml GOl DM FIN. Institute /»r. Advanced 
Study 



66 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



Automorphic Forms and L-tunctions Seminar: 
"Landau-Siegel Zeros and Cusp Forms" 
DIN AKAR RAMAKRISHN AN, Institute for 
Advanced Study 

"Langlands-Shahidi Methods and Poles of 

Automorphic L-functions" 

HENRY KIM, Institute for Advanced Study 



Members Seminar: "Supercuspidal Lifts from PGL 3 to 

G 2 " 

WEE TECK GAN, Institute for Advanced Study 

Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Many Hard Examples for the Polynomial Calculus 
Joint Work with Russell Impagliazzo, from UCSD" 
ELI BEN-SASSON, The Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem, Israel 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Langlands Correspondence Over Function Fields:, 
Principle of the Proof 

L. LAFFORGUE, Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique , University ofOrsay 

"Langlands Correspondence Over Function Fields: 
Implementation of This Principle" 
L. LAFFORGUE, Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique, University ofOrsay 

"Langlands Correspondence Over Function Fields: 
More About Compactifications" 
L. LAFFORGUE, Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique, University ofOrsay 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Entropy, Independent Sets and Antichains" 
JEFF KAHN, Rutgers University 

Members Seminar: "On Some Analysis Problems 
Stemming from Analog-to-digital Conversion" 
INGRID DAUBECHIES, Institute for Advanced Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: "On a 
Conjecture of Kummer on Class Numbers of Cyclo- 
tomic Fields" 
RAM MURTY, Institute for Advanced Study 

Homotopy Theory Seminar: "The Bousfield-Kan 

Spectral Sequence Based on Periodic Complex 

K-theory" 

MARTIN BENDERSKY, City University of New York, 

Hunter College 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

M ARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Automorphic Forms and the ABC-conjecture" 
DORIAN GOLDFELD, Columbia University 

"A Century of Class Numbers" 

HAROLD STARK, Institute for Advanced Study 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"A PCP Characterization of NP with Optimal 
Amortized Query Complexity" 
LUCA TREVISAN, Columbia University 

Members Seminar: "K-theoretic Invariants for 

Symplectic Floer Homology" 

MICHAEL SULLIVAN, Insritute for Advanced Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"Theta Liftings and Classical Theta Series" 

R. SCHULZE-PILLOT, Insritute for Advanced Study 

Homotopy Theory Seminar: "On the Work of 
Smirnov on Grothendieck's Standard Conjectures" 
A. NEEMAN, Australian National University 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 

"Robust Logic" 

LESLIE G. VALIANT, Harvard University 

Members Seminar: "On a Conjecture for Product 

Codes" 

MARIO SZEGEDY, Insritute for Advanced Study 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: "Some 

Divisibility Properties of Class Numbers of Quadratic 

Fields" 

E. FOUVRY, University ofOrsay 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

M ARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Insritute for Advanced 

Study 



67 



Institute for advanced study 



Automoiphic Forms and L-functions Seminar 

"www.mon0dromy.com'' 

Nil :l IOLAS KATZ, Institute for Advanced Study 

"p .i.Ik L-functions tor GSp 4 " 

A. PANCH1SHKIN, Institute for Advanced Study 

\nalysis Theory Seminar: "On Quasi Periodic 

Schrocdinger Equation" 

W. SCHLAG, Princeton University 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 

"Projections of Suhsets of the Discrete and 

I 1 mtinuous Cube" 

EHUD FRIEDGUT, MSRI/University of California, 

Berkeley 

Members Seminar: "Prime Values of Polvnomials" 
JOHN FRIEDLANDER, Institute for Advanced Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"On Central Critical Values of Degree Four 
L-functions for Gsp(4): Fundamental Lemma" 
M. FURUSAWA, Institute for Advanced Study 

Homotopy Theory Seminar: "The Picard Group of 
the Stable A' -homotopy Category" 
PO HU, University of Chicago 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 
Study 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"On the Arithmetic Geometry of X (q): Analytic 
Methods and L-functions" 
P. Mil 1 [EL, Institute for Advanced Study 



Analysis Theory Seminar: "Laplace Operator and 
( lontinued Fractions" 

I IAVID 1NGERMAN, Institute for Advanced Study 



[tones and Complexity Theory' Seminar: 
"A Quantum to Classical Phase Transition in Noisy 
Quantum Computers" 

DOR1T AHARONOV, University of California. 
Berkeley 

1 [1 inn itopy Theory Seminar: "S-modules in the 
A '-homotopy Theory" 
-PO HU, University of Chicago 

Homotopy Theory Seminar: "Leray in Oflag XVlIa: 
Cohomology, Sheaves, and Spectral Sequences" 
HAYENS MILLER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"On Theta Series Associated to Orders in 
Quaternion Algebras (A Conjecture of 1 lashimi 
S. BOECHERER, Institute for Advanced Studs 



Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"The Erdos-Szekeres Game" 
JOZSEF BECK, Rutgers University 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology : Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



I 'oinhinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"On the Optimum oi Delsarte's Linear Program" 
ALEX SAMORODNITSKY, Institute fat Advanced 
Study 



I ei cures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VI ADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute fat Advanced 
Study 



Members Seminar: "Approximating the Permanent" 
ALEX SAMOROI >NH SKY, Institute fat Advanced 
Study 



Automorphic Forms and I functions Seminar 
"Modularity and ( ialois Representations: An 
1 )verview" 

CHRISTOPHER SKINNER, Institute for Advanced 
Study 



(sS 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



"Convexity Breaking and the Amplification Method" 
J. VANDERKAM, Institute for Defense Analysis 

Special Seminar: "Differentiability of Litshit: 
Functions and Negligible Sets in Hilbert Space" 
JORAM L1NDENSTRAUSS, The Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem , Israel 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Two Erdos Problems on Lacunary Sequences: 
Chromatic Number and Diophantine Approximation" 
YUVAL PERES, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 
Israel 

Members Seminar: "Infinite Matrix Products" 
LEONID GURVITS, Institute for Advanced Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Some Elementary Remarks on the Guinand-Weil 
Explicit Formula" 
ENRICO BOMBIERI, Institute for Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "On the Homotopy Type of p-adic 

Analytic Spaces" 

VLADIMIR BERKOVICH, Weizmann Institute of 

Science 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



Automorphic Fonns and L-tunctions Seminar: 

"Average Values for Powers of Quadratic Dirichlet 

L-functions" 

CALIN DIACONU, Institute for Advanced Study 

Analysis Seminar: "Dynamics of Solitons and Waves 
in the Non-linear Hartree Equation" 
TAI-PENG TSAI, Courant Institute 

Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"Primes in Arithmetic Progressions" 

JOHN FRIEDLANDER, Institute for Advanced Study 

"Intersecting a Suhvariety of G m with the Algebraic 

Subgroups" 

UMBERTO ZANNIER, Institute for Advanced Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"Arithmetic Invariants on the Modular Curve 

Xo(N)" 

EMMANUEL ULLMO, Princeton University and 

University of Orsay 

"How Many Zeros are Off the Line?" 
DENNIS HEJHAL, Institute for Advanced Study 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"List Decoding of Error-correcting Codes" 
MADHU SUDAN, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Some Elementary Remarks on the Guinand-Weil 
Explicit Formula (continuation)" 
ENRICO BOMBIERI, Institute for Advanced Study 

Special Combinatorics and Complexity Theory 
Seminar: "Some Optimal Inapproximability Results" 
JOHAN HASTAD, Royal Institute of Technology 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Economical Covers with Geometric Applications" 
NOGA ALON, Tel Aviv University 

Joint School of Mathematics and Program in 
Theoretical Biology Lecture: "Why Fibonacci 
Numbers Appear on Plants" 
IRVING ADLER 

The First Ruth and Irving Adler Expository Lecture: 
"Modules Over Nonunital Rings" 
DANIEL QUILLEN, University of Oxford 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Singularities of Eisenstein Series and the Arthur 
Trace Formula" 
WERNER MULLER, Institute for Advanced Study 



Institute for advanced study 



"Converse Theorem, Proof and/oi Application" 
JAMES COGDELL, Institute for Advanced Study 

Automorphic Forms and L-funcrions Seminar 
"Distribution of Special Points on Subvariecies of 
Shimura Varieties and Applications" 
PAULA COHEN, Institute far Advanced Study 

Aut o m o rphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Some Elementary Remarks on the Guinand-Weil 
Explicit Formula (continuation)" 
ENRICO BOMBIERI, Institute for Advanced Study 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute far Advanced 

Scud} 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Automorphic Pairing of CM-points" 
SHOU-WU ZHANG, Columbia University 

"Automorphic L-functions Over Function Fields" 
WEN-CHING LI, Institute for Advanced Study 

( Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Extracting Randomness via Repeated Condensing" 
RONEN SHALTIEL, Institute for Advanced Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-tunctions Seminar: 
"Axiomatic L-functions: The Selberg Class" 
ALBERTO PERELL1, Institute far Advanced Study 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: "Some 
Elementary' Remarks on the Guinand-Weil Explicit 
Formula (continuation)" 
ENRICO BOMBIERI, Institute for Advanced Study 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute far Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Stud) 



Automorphii Forms and L functions Seminar: "New 
Estimates P wards Ramanujan and Selberg i Conjec- 
tures lor I iL(2)" 
FREY1 K KW SHAH1DI, Purdue Uniwrsiej 

"Some Remarks on the I andau-Siegel Zeros" 
ALEXANDRU ZAHARESCU, Institute fa Advanced 
Study 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 

"Percolation and ( Collision" 
PETER WINKLER, Bell Labs 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Semi-classical Limits for the Hyperbolic Plane" 
■SCOTT WOLPERT, University of Maryland 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: "Some 
Elementary Remarks on the Guinand-Weil Explicit 
Formula (continuation)" 
ENRICO BOMBIERI, Institute for Advanced Study 

Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"A Formula of Kohnen-Zagier" 

ZHENGYU MAO, Institute for Advanced Study 

"Equidistribution of Maass Forms and Rankin Triple 

L-functions" 

THOMAS C. WATSON, Princeton University 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Max Cut and the Smallest Eigenvalue" 
BENNY SUDAKOV, Princeton University and 
Institute far Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "Motives oi Quadrics" 

ALEXANDER VISHIK, Institute for Advanced Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"Numerical Expedition in Search of Elusive Maass 

Forms" 

STEFAN JOHANSSON, Institute for Advanced Studs 



Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute fat Advanced 

Studs 



Automorphic Forms and 1. functions Seminar 

"Seeking a Slightly Saintly Grail (A Matter of Zero 

Import)" 

HAROLD STARK, Institute for Advanced Studs 



70 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



"Modular Generating Functions for Arithmetic 

Cycles" 

STEPHEN KUDLA, University of Maryland 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"Primes of the Form x 3 + 2y 3 " 

ROGER HEATH-BROWN, University of Oxford 



Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"Families of Automorphic L-functions Constructed 
by Rankin-Selherg Method" 
STEPHEN RALLIS, The Ohio State University 

"Nonvanishing of L-values and the Weyl Law" 
WENZHI LUO, The Ohio State University" 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"On Quantum Complexity of Graph Properties" 
ANDREW YAO, Princeton University 

Marston Morse Memorial Lecture: "Modular Forms, 
Theta Functions and Algebraic Topology" 
MICHAEL J. HOPKINS, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: "Does 
Zeta Have the Largest First Zero?" 
STEVE MILLER, Yale University 

Marston Morse Memorial Lecture: "Modular Forms, 
Theta Functions, and Algebraic Topology" 
MICHAEL J. HOPKINS, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Special Seminar: "Rings, Codes, Combinatorics" 
STEFAN SCHMIDT, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"Endoscopy and Beyond" 

ROBERT LANGLANDS, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 

"Modular Forms Over CM Fields and Galois 

Representations" 

DIN AKAR RAMAKRISHN AN, Institute for 

Advanced Stud} 

Marston Morse Memorial Lecture: "Modular Forms, 
Theta Functions, and Algebraic Topology" 
MICHAEL J. HOPKINS, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Convex Complexity Measures" 
RUSSELL IMPAGLIAZZO, University of California, 
San Diego 

Special Lecture in Representation Theory: 

"Distinguished Representations for Quadratic 

Extensions" 

DIPENDRA PRASAD, MRI, India 



Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: "An 
Icosahedral Representation Attached to a Q-curve" 
EDRAY GOINS, Institute for Advanced Study 



Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 



Special Math/Physics Seminat: "Integrable Structure 
of Conformal Maps and Interface Dynamics" 
PAUL WIEGMANN, University of Chicago 

Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 



Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 

"Pseudorandom Generators in Propositional Proof 

Complexity" 

ALEXANDER RAZBOROV, Princeton University and 

Institute for Advanced Stud> 



71 



Institute for advanced study 



Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar 

"Polynomial Invariants erf I Staphs on Surfaces" "A Computational Beraut" 

BELA BOLLOBAS, Memphis and Cambridge University MARTIN SOMBRA, Institute for Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "Some Connections Between the 
Ergodic Theory of Lie Groups and Problems in 
Quantum Unique Ergodicity and Number Theory" 
ELON L1NDENSTRAUSS, Institute far Advanced 
Study 

Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Analytical Methods in Integer Programming" 
GREGORY FREIMAN, Tel Aviv University 

( Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Selective Decommitment, Magic Functions, and 
3-round Zero Knowledge" 
OMER RE1NGOLD, AT<ST and Institute far 
Advanced Study 

Lectures on Norm Varieties 

MARKUS ROST, Institute far Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Automorphic Forms and L-functions Seminar: 
"The Local Langlands Conjecture" 
RICHARD TAYLOR, Harvard University 

"Some Remarks on the Fontaine-Mazur Conjecture" 
RICHARD TAYLOR, Harvard University 

Motivic Cohomology Lectures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

- on Norm Varieties 
MARKUS ROST, Institute for Advanced Study 

Motivic t Cohomology Let cures 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Special ( Combinatorics and Complexity rheor) 
Seminar: "Enumeration ol Equicolorable trees" 
NI< '1 IOLAS PIITENC.ER, ( Wversitj 0/ British 

Columbia 



72 




I found the years that I spent at the Institute to be 
remarkably productive ones. I have benefited 
enormously both from the stimulating intellectual 
environment, and from the peaceful physical surroundings." 

— Member, School of Natural Sciences 



Astrophysicists Sara Seager, Wayne Hu, and Andrei Grajinov. 



SCHOOL • 



STEPHEN L. ADLER, Particle Physics, New Jersey Albert Einstein Professor 

)OHN N. BAHCALL, Astrophysics, Richard Black Professor 

P1ET HUT, Astrophysics 

NATHAN SEIBERG, Theoretical Physics 

FRANK WILCZEK, Theoretical Physics, J. Robert Oppenheimer Professor 

EDWARD W1TTEN, Mathematical Physics, Charles Simonyi Professor 



PAWAN KUMAR, Astrophysics 
FREEMAN J. DYSON, Mathematical Physics and Astrophysics 

PROFESSOR STEPHEN ADLER'S time this year was divided between work on modi- 
fied forms of quantum mechanics, in particular phenomenological modifications of the 
Schrodinger equation, and work on particle phenomenology. 

In the area of quantum mechanics, Adler expanded a manuscript co-authored with 
Horwitz into a paper giving a detailed study of the structure and properties of the 
Hughston stochastic Schrodinger equation, including an analysis of its relation to other 
proposed stochastic equations and an initial discussion of empirical issues. One signifi- 
cant added result is that only when the dissipation is driven by an operator commuting 
with the Hamiltonian does one get a stationary limiting behavior at all; as shown in the 
paper, in this case the limiting probabilities for various final states to occur agree with the 
quantum mechanical probabilities computed from the initial state. The use of Ito calcu- 
lus methods in this paper led Adler to a new, and very simple, understanding of the Lind- 
blad structure for the generator of a completely positive density matrix evolution, as an 
infinitesimal Ito specialization of the Kraus form for a global, completely positive densi- 
ty matrix map. As part of a continuing phenomenological study, in collaboration with 
graduate student Indrajit Mitra, of whether the Hughston equation can give a satisfacto- 
ry empirical account of state vector collapse, Adler found an exact solution of a simple 
model for the statistical fluctuations in the number of adsorbed model on an active 
surface. (The mass fluctuations associated with such molecules play a crucial role in the 
Hughston equation model for state vector reduction.) He also gave a review talk on the 
role of probability in quantum mechanics, focusing on the issue of postulated 
versus emergent probabilities, at the Ischia conference on Chance in Physics in late 
November. Additionally, Professor Adler gave an unpublished survey talk, "Explorations 
in Quantum Mechanics," reviewing highlights of his work on quantum mechanics, at the 
conference Symmetry Found and Lost held at the Institute in mid-October in honor ot his 
60 th birthday. 



75 



Institute for advanced study 



In partic l( pheni imenology, Adlcr initiated a study, to be continued, of the possible role 
of al ifshitt phase in gauge symmetry breaking. As a by-product, he analyzed the gener- 
alization of the most attractive channel rule that is relevant to the formation of dynam- 
ical fermionic condensates under the influence of scalar exchange forces. This piper 
shows that in certain cases ot intrust, the sign and magnitude ol the scalar exchange 
force is governed by a generalized Racah coefficient, and gives a number of possible appli- 
cations to S( H 10) and E„ grand unification. 

Over the next year or two, Professor Adlcr expects to continue to divide his time approxi- 
mately equally between studies in quantum mechanics and studies in particle phenomenol- 
ogy. The quantum mechanics work will focus on trace dynamics as a possible fundamental 
pre-quantum mechanics, and on analyses of phenomenological modifications of the 
Schrodingei equation. The particle phenomenology work will emphasize dynamical 
symmetry breaking and possible family groups. 

PROFESSOR JOHN BAHCALL again concentrated on high energy (> 1 GeV) and low 
energy (< 20 MeV) neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Both subjects are the focus of 
much interest by both theoretical and experimental physicists. However, the two sub- 
jects have very different goals. The search for high energy neutrino sources will be car- 
ried out by several new neutrino observatories under the ocean (in the Mediterranean) 
or under the ice (in Antarctica). The search for high energy neutrinos is exploratory. We 
do not know whether Nature provides sources of high energy neutrinos that are suffi- 
^ iently intense to be observed. 

Together with Sarbani Basu (IAS) and Marc Pinsonneault (Ohio State), Bahcall refined 
the Standard solar model predictions for solar neutrino experiments. In addition, they 
calculated for the first time the detailed time dependence of many of the important quan- 
tities that characterize solar-type stars, such as luminosity, radius, effective temperature, 
depth and mass of the convective zone. Future precise observations on other solar-type 
stars ot different ages may test these predictions. 

Bahcall continued his collaboration with Plamen Krastev (University of Wisconsin) and 
Alexei Smirnov (ICrTP, Trieste); they are trying to determine what are the neutrino 
properties that are manifested in solar neutrino experiments. These theorists calculated 
the predictions of all of the currently allowed neutrino oscillation solutions for 10 exper- 
imental quantities that will be measured by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), a 
kiloton detector ot heavy water. The firsl ol the experimental results will be released 

s timebefon the end d the year 2000. Bahcall, Krastev, and Smirnov also showed K 

extensive examples the correlations that are expected between the measured values ot 
different experimental quantities, depending upon what neutrino scenario is adopted. 

In the more uncertain domain ol high energy astrophysical neutrinos, Peter Meszaros 
(Pennsylvania State University) and Bahcall showed thai many models oi gamma ray 
I -in si (< IRB) sources give rise to a potentially measurable flux of 5-10 ( ie\ neutrinos from 

interactions between neutrons and protons in the GRB, Bahcall and W'axman (Weu 

m. inn Institute) showed that current models of GRB's also predict a possibly measurable 
flux ot wry high-energy neutrinos ( 10 U eV) neutrinos formed by the interaction ol the 
photon fireball with the medium surrounding the GRB. As an extension of their work 
on the connection between t IRB's and ultra-high energy cosmic rays (10 eV) and very 



76 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



high-energy neutrinos, Bahcall and Waxman showed that the existing observations of 
ultra-high energy cosmic rays could be understood by assuming a plausible degree of clus- 
tering among the sources of the cosmic rays, whatever those sources may be. 

Bahcall joined the international experimental collaboration, ICECUBE, that is propos- 
ing a km 2 detector of high-energy astronomical neutrinos under the Antarctic ice. 

PROFESSOR P1ET HUT explored a novel way to visualize the results of simulations of 
star cluster evolution at the newly completed Hayden Planetarium of the American 
Museum of Natural History, in New York City. Using the planetarium dome, the world's 
largest virtual reality environment, he applied their interactive visualization capabilities 
to explore various forms of data mining. Combining the dual functions of a virtual tele- 
scope and an active laboratory device, the planetarium equipment allowed him and his 
collaborators to analyze the local interactions of multiple star systems within the full 
global setting of a whole star cluster. The simulations formed part of a collaborative pro- 
ject with Jun Makino from Tokyo University, Steve McMillan from Drexel, and Simon 
Portegies Zwart from MIT 

Currently, Hut is involved in the ongoing project to develop the GRAPE-6, which at a 
speed of more than 100 Teraflops, will become once again the world's fastest computer in 
the fall of the year 2000, regaining the title that its predecessor, the GRAPE-4, had held 
in 1995 and 1996. One of the first GRAPE-6 boards, at a speed of 500 Gigaflops, was 
presented to the American Museum of Natural History as part of a three-way collabora- 
tion between Hut's team at the Institute, Makino's team at Tokyo, and Michael Shara's 
team at the Museum. This occurred during a conference on Stellar Collisions at the 
Museum, for which Hut was one of the organizers. 

Hut organized a summer school, titled "Values in a World of Fact," in August 1999, 
together with cognitive psychologist Roger Shepard from Stanford, philosopher of 
science Bas van Fraassen from Princeton University, physicist Arthur Zajonc from 
Amherst College, and writer Steven Tainer from Berkeley. This was the second public 
offering of the Kira Institute (web site: http://www.kira.org). 

Among several other interdisciplinary activities, Hut was invited to debate E. O. Wilson 
at the World Economic Forum in Davos, in January 2000. At the Institute, Hut orga- 
nized a series of lunch meetings on intentionality, co-chaired with David Waltz, president 
of the NEC research laboratory at Princeton, in which they discussed Brian Smith's 
notion of 'the origin of objects'. Hut took part in a panel on Science and Art at the 
College Art Association Conference in New York, in February. In Hayama, Japan, Hut 
gave an invited talk at the "Mind and Brain" conference, organized by the Japan Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Research Corporation. 

During the period 1999-2000, PROFESSOR PAWAN KUMAR continued working on 
gamma-ray bursts, tidal interactions and helioseismology. Gamma-ray bursts are enig- 
matic phenomenon involving an explosion of some object about which we do not yet 
know very much. Kumar's work on gamma-ray bursts explored the consequences of high- 
ly anisotropic explosion on the radiation we observe and their luminosity function or the 
observed distribution of the energy. He showed that a number of puzzling observed 
results, such as the broad distribution of flux in the gamma-ray explosion and narrower 



77 



Institute for advanced study 



distribution for the flux in the x-ray several hours after the burst, are naturally explained 
if the explosion is non-isotropic. Work with Alin Panaitescu, of Princeton University, 
explored in great detail the effect of density stratification of the medium surrounding 
these bnrst> and collimated explosion on the observed light-curve. 

Kumar and Tal Alexander, an Institute Member, investigated the effect of tidal inter- 
action on the rotation of stars, and discovered that in dense stellar systems, such as the 
Galactic center, stars can be spun up by tidal interactions with other stars to a speed of 
order 10% of their centrifugal breakup speed. 

During the last year, PROFESSOR NATHAN SE1BERG focused on various aspects of 
noncommutative geometry, its appearance in string theory, the properties of field theo- 
ries on a noncommutative space, and possible extensions of this geometry. 

With E. Witten earlier ideas about the appearance of noncommutative geometry in string 
theory with a nonzero B-field were investigated. A limit in which the entire string 
dynamics is described by a minimally coupled (supersymmetric) gauge theory on a non- 
commutative space was identified, and the corrections away from this limit were dis- 
cussed. This analysis led to an equivalence between ordinary gauge fields and noncom- 
mutative gauge fields, which is realized by a change of variables that can be described 
explicitly. This change of variables was checked by comparing the ordinary Dirac-Born- 
Infeld theory with its noncommutative counterpart. This led to a new perspective on 
noncommutative gauge theory on a torus, its T-duality, and Morita equivalence, and to 
a new analysis of the D0/D4 system, the relation to M-theory in DLCQ, and a possible 
noncommutative version of the six-dimensional (2,0) theory. 

In two papers (one with S. Minwalla and M. Van Raamsdonk and the other with M. Van 
Raamsdonk) the perturbative dynamics of noncommutative field theories on R J was ana- 
lyzed. A surprising mixing of the UV and the IR was found. High energies of virtual par- 
ticles in loops produce non-analyticity at low momentum. Consequently, the low ener- 
gy effective action is singular at zero momentum even when the original noncommuta- 
tive field theory is massive. Some of the nonplanar diagrams of these theories are diver- 
gent, but these divergences were interpreted as IR divergences and were dealt with 
accordingly. The origin of this UV/IR mixing was explained as arising from the underly- 
ing noncommutativity. This phenomenon is reminiscent of the channel duality of the 
double twist diagram in open string theory, and the new massless modes were identified 
as "closed strings." 

It was further argued that all IR singularities in nonplanar one loop diagrams may be 
interpreted as arising from the tree-level exchanges of such new light degrees of freedom, 
one coupling to each relevant operator. Some of these degrees of freedom are required CO 
li.wi- propagators that are inverse linear or logarithmic. It was suggested that these can 
be interpreted as free propagators of a continuum of massive particles, which .ire perhaps 
massless in one or two extra dimensions. Some of the IR singular terms appearing at two 
loops in noncommutative scalar field theories were also analyzed, and they exhibit a com- 
I li< ited momentum dependence which is more difficult to interpret 

Further insight into the properties of the noncommutativity was obtained in two papers 
with L. Sussltind and N. Toumbas, where the time coordinate was considered not 



7- 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



commute with one of the space coordinates. In the first paper, field theories on such a 
space were shown to be seriously acausal and inconsistent with conventional Hamilton- 
ian evolution. To illustrate these effects, the scattering of wave packets in a field theory 
with such space/time noncommutativity was studied, and effects which seem to precede 
their causes were found. Also, the theory was shown to describe rigid rods, which grow 
instead of Lorentz contract as they are boosted. These field theories are evidently incon- 
sistent and violate causality and unitarity. 

Since open string theory in a background electric field is expected to exhibit space/time 
noncommutativity, this raises the question of whether it also leads to such acausal 
behavior. It was shown that this is not the case. Stringy effects conspire to cancel the 
acausal effects that are present for the noncommutative field theory leaving the theory 
consistent. 

In a second paper with L. Susskind and N. Toumbas, open strings in a constant back- 
ground electric field were analyzed further. The main difference between this situation 
and its magnetic counterpart is that here there is a critical electric field beyond which the 
theory does not make sense. This critical field prevents a limit in which the theory 
becomes a field theory on a noncommutative spacetime from existing. However, an 
appropriate limit toward the critical field leads to a novel noncritical string theory on a 
noncommutative spacetime. Contrary to standard lore, these noncommutative open 
string theories involve only open strings and no closed strings. 

Extensions of these ideas were studied with R. Gopakumar, S. Minwalla and A. Strominger. 
Here, limits of string theory were found leading to theories without gravity exhibiting new 
surprising properties. These theories exist in six and fewer spacetime dimensions and their 
underlying geometric structure is not yet clear. Unlike the noncommutative theories 
which depend on a deformation of spacetime involving a two-index tensor, here the defor- 
mation involves a tensor with three or more indices. The strong coupling limit of these 
theories in the various dimensions was studied, and an interesting web of dualities was 
found to relate them. This web includes all previously studied theories: commutative and 
noncommutative field theories, the newly discovered noncommutative open string theo- 
ries, the enigmatic little string theories and many others. 

This was a year of consolidation in PROFESSOR FRANK WILCZEK'S work on under- 
standing matter at high density, using QCD and asymptotic freedom. The major quali- 
tative results that emerge in the lowest order of approximation, including confinement 
and chiral symmetry breaking, are now pretty well understood. This approximation 
becomes accurate as the density goes to infinity, but to treat problems of great physical 
interest, and to make experimentally testable quantitative predictions, we need to do 
better. Wilczek has some ideas for this, but they need more work. 

Wilczek did extensive work with Jonathan Feng (IAS) and Konstantin Matchev 
(Fermilab) on the physical consequences of low-energy supersymmetry. Specifically, they 
pursued the "focus point" hypothesis for supersymmetry breaking. This is a new theoret- 
ical idea which avoids some of the apparent difficulties in reconciling low-energy super- 
symmetry with established facts. The group's main original contribution was to show 
that the focus point hypothesis naturally leads one to predict the production of cosmo- 
logically stable particles with density just sufficient to provide the astronomers' "missing 



79 



Institute for advanced study 



matter", and to analyze in some detail how one might detect them in practical experi- 
ments. These conclusions contradicted conventional wisdom in the field, hut they are 
gaining general acceptance. 

Wil< zek spent a lot of time thinking about the problem of the cosmological term, and 
wrote a paper (with Feng, Savdeep Sethi of the Institute, and John March-Russell oi 
CERN) suggesting physical mechanisms whereby its relaxation to a small value might be 
understood. We certainly have not yet seen our way to the bottom of this problem, but 
Wilczek thinks the circle of ideas being explored has considerable promise. In any case, 
it's a great problem, and Wilc:ek is going to keep hammering away. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD WITTEN'S most significant result in the last year was to 
extend the application of K-theory to string theory to show that the Ramond sector p- 
form fields (as well as the corresponding D-brane charges) are classified by K-theory. 
Win on showed how to implement the p-form self-duality in terms ot K-theory and (in 
work with G. Moore and E. Diaconescu) showed how in this framework to analyze cer- 
tain global anomalies and to compare the K-theory formalism of Type II A superstrings to 
M- theory. 

During the year, Witten also completed some old work analyzing Tr (-1) F and associated 
topological invariants for four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories, analyzed cer- 
tain world-sheet instantons of the heterotic string, and investigated tachyon condensa- 
tion from the point of view of string field theory. 

The new and revised edition of PROFESSOR EMERITUS FREEMAN DYSON'S book 
Origins of Life was published in Fall 1999 by Cambridge University Press. He continues 
to be actively engaged in studying theories and experiments in this rapidly changing field. 

In May 2000, Dyson was awarded the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion. Much oi 
his time was spent in festivities and travel associated with the prize. 

Profesor Dyson's number-theory paper, "The Sixth Fermat Number and Palindromic 
Continued Fractions," was accepted for publication in U Enseignement Mathematique . 



80 



THE OF NATURAL S< 

MEMBERS AND VISITO 



TAL ALEXANDER 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study 

KORKUT BARDAKCI 

Particle Physics 

Universiry of California, Berkeley • / 

RENNAN BARKANA 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study 

SARBANI BASU 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study 

JULIAN BIGELOW 

Applied Mathematics 

Institute for Advanced Study ■ m 

CLAUDIO CHAMON 
Condensed Matter 
Boston University • / 

KESHAV DASGUPTA 

Mathematical Physics 
Institute for Advanced Study 

ANGELICA DE OLIVEIRA-COSTA 

Astrophysics 

Princeton University • V 

DUILIU-EMANUEL DIACONESCU 
Mathematical and Particle Physics 
Institute for Advanced Study 

SHMUEL ELITZUR 
Mathematical Physics 
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel • v 

JONATHAN FENG 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study 

MICHAEL FOGLER 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study 

MASATAKA FUKUGITA 

Astrophysics 
University of Tokyo • v 



ANDREI GRUZINOV 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study • m 

JEFF HARVEY 

Particle Physics 
University of Chicago • v 

FRED HEHL 
Theoretical Physics 
Universitat zu Koln • / 

DAVID HOGG 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study ■ m 

WAYNE HU 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study • m 

LAM HUI 
Astrophysics 
Fermilab 

KENNETH INTRILIGATOR 

Particle Physics 

University of California, San Diego • / 

DANIEL KABAT 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study 

SHAMIT KACHRU 
Mathematical and Particle Physics 
LawTence Berkeley Laboratory • / 

ANTON KAPUSTIN 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study 

VLADIMIR KAZAKOV 

Particle Physics 

Ecole Normale Superieure • v 

SOFIA KIRHAKOS 

Astrophysics • v 

ALBRECHT KLEMM 

Theoretical Physics 

Ludwig-Maximillians University, Germany 



/ First Term ■ m Long Term Member ■ v Visitor 



SI 



Institute for advanced study 



PLAMEN KRASTEV 
Neutrino Astrophysics 
University of Wisconsin i 

MARCIO MARTINS 

Condensed Matter 

Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Brazil 

PETER MESZAROS 
Neutrino Astrophysics 
Pennsylvania State University ■ s 

TAKEO MOROl 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study 

DAVID MORRISON 
Mathematical Physics 
Duke University • s 

V.P. NAIR 

Particle Physics 

City College of New Yotk • v 

CHIARA NAPPI 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study • m 

JOSEF NIR 

Particle Physics 

Weizmann Institute of Science 

BURT OVRUT 

Particle PhysU s 

University of Pennsylvania • v 

JAEMO PARK 

Mathematical and Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study 

LEONID PRYADKO 

Condensed Matter 

Institute for Advanced Study 

ELIOT QUATAERT 

Astrophysics 

Institute foi Advanced Study m 

GOVINDAN RAJESH 
Mathematical and Particle Physics 
Institute lor Advanced Study 

ROMAN SCOCC1MARRO 

Astrophysics 

University .it Toronto, C1TA 



SARA SEAGER 
Astrophysics 
Harvard University 

GORDON SEMENOFF 

Particle Physics 

University of British Columbia • s 

SAVDEEP SETHI 

Mathematical and Particle Physics 
Institute for Advanced Study • m 

EVA SILVERSTEIN 
Mathematical and Particle Physics 
Stanford University •/ 

ALEXEI SMIRNOV 
Neutrino Astrophysics 
lnternation.il Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy • v 

STEPHAN STIEBERGER 

Mathematical and Particle Physics 

Conseil European pour le Recherche Nucleaire, 

Switzetland 

MATTHEW STRASSLER 
Mathematical and Particle Physics 
Institute fot Advanced Study • m 

OLEG TCHERNYSHYOV 

Condensed Matter 

Institute fot Advanced Study 

MAX TEGMARK 

Astrophysics 

Institute fot Advanced Study • / 

CLAUDIO TEITELBOIM 

Particle Physics 

Centro de Estudios Cientfficos de Santiago, Chile • dm 

ZHENG YIN 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Stud\ 

MATIAS ZALDARRIAGA 

Astrophysics 

Institute foi Advanced Study • m 



f First Term i Second Term m Long Term Membei 11 Director's Visitoi w Vision 



B2 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



THE 

RECORD Ob 



The following is a calendar of events sponsored by 
the School of Natural Sciences 






Astrophysics Talk: "Neutrinos from Superheavy 

Dark Matter" 

LAM HUI, Institute for Advanced Study 



High Energy Theory Seminar: "epsilon'/epsilon from 

QCDSP: First Results" 

ROBERT MAWH1NNEY, Columbia University 



Astrophysics Talk: "The Bispectrum of IRAS 

Galaxies" 

ROMAN SCOCCIMARRO, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Astrophysics Talk: "Migrating Planets" 
NORM MURRAY, C/TA 



Astrophysics Talk: "From Hints to Evidence to Facts: 
Latest Neutrino Results from Super-Kamiokande" 
ED KEARNS, Boston University 



Astrophysics Talk: "X-tay Coronae of Accreting 

Black Holes" 

ANDREI BELOBORODOV, Stockholm University 



Astrophysics Talk: "The Cooling Flow to Acctetion 
Flow Transition" 
ELIOT QUATAERT 



Astrophysics Talk: "Disks, Jets, and Clusters: 
The Violent Environment of Star Formation" 
JOHN BALLY, Univsity of Colorado, Boulder 



High Energy Theory Seminar: "Fractional Branes and 

BPS States in Orbifold Theories" 

EMANUEL DIACONESCU, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



High Energy Theory Seminar: "Physics of Large Extra 

Dimensions" 

GIA DVALI, New York University 



Astrophysics Talk: "Supernova and Gamma-Ray 
Burst Explosions in Stellar Winds" 
ROGER CHEVALIER, University of Virginia 



Astrophysics Talk: "An Accretion Model for 

Anomalous X-ray Pulsars" 

LARS HERNQUIST, Harvard University 



High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "The 4D 
Trace Anomaly: Conformal Symmerry Lost and Con- 
formal Symmetry Found" 
EMIL MOTTOLA, Los Alamos National Labs 



Astrophysics Talk: "Disk Instabilities and Viscosity in 

Close Binaries" 

KRISTEN MENOU, Princeton University 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Gauge Theory and 
the Censorship of 'Repulson' Singularities" 
CLIFFORD V JOHNSON, University of Durham 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "2 + 1 Dimensional 
Yang-Mills Theory: Vacuum Wavefunction and 
String Tension" 

VP. NAIR, Institute for Advanced Study and 
City College of New York 

Astrophysics Talk: "High Ptecision Cosmology: 
Galaxies vs. Weak Lensing" 
UROS SELJAK, Princeton University 



Astrophysics Talk: "The Measurement of Galaxy 

Power Spectra" 

ANDREW HAMILTON, University of Colorado, 

Boulder 



83 



Institute for advanced study 



Astrophysics Talk: "Black Hole Flares and Halos" 
ANDREI GRUZINOV, Institute for Advanced Study 

Astrophysics Talk: "Detecting the Earliest Galaxies in 

the Universe" 

RENN AN BARKAN A, Institute fat Advanced Study 



High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "Fun With 

Wrapped Branes" 

SI IAMIT KACHRU, Institute for Advanced Study 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Weakly Coupled 

Little String Theory" 

DAVID KUTASOV, University of Chicago 

Astrophysics Talk: "Measuring Mass Functions with 

Pixel Microlensing" 

TED BALTZ, University of California, Berkeley 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Strings in AdS, and 

the SL(2,R) WZW Model" 

JUAN MALDACENA, Harvard University 



Astrophysics Talk: "Magnetically Driven Warping, 
Precession and Resonances in Accretion Disks" 
DONG LAI, Cornell University 

Astrophysics Talk: "Constraining Reionization Using 

the Thermal History of the Baryons" 

JOOP SCHAYE, Institute of Astronomy, University of 

Cambridge 

Special High Energy Theory Seminar: "On Calahi Yau 
Mirror Symmetry as Gauge Theory Duality" 
M1NA AGANAGIC, Harvard University 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar "RG Row 

on I >1 Branes: Small N Gauge Theory and Small N 

Supetsymmetry" 

EVA S1LVERSTE1N, Institute for Advanced Study 



High Energy Tl». n , & minar: "Life, the I Iniveise, 
and Nothing: Life in an Evei Expanding Universe" 
LAWRENCE KRAUSS, Case Western Reserve 
University 



High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: 

"Maximally Supersymmetric RG Rows and AdS 

Duality" 

KEN 1NTR1LIGATOR, University of California, 

San Diego 



I huh Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "The 
Small Instanton Transition in Heterotic-M Theory" 
J AEMO PARK, Institute for Advanced Studs 



High Energy Theory Seminar: "Mirror Symmetry" 
KENTARO HOR1, Harvard University 



Astrophysics Talk: "Hydrodynamical Disk Transport" 
STEVEN BALBUS, University of Virginia 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Life, the Universe, 
and Nothing: Life in an Ever Expanding Universe" 
LAWRENCE KRAUSS, Cose Western Reserve 

University 



Astrophysics Talk: "Future Telescopes on the Ground 

and in Space" 

ROGER ANGEL, University of Arizona 



Astrophysics Talk: "Many Open Problems and (Few) 
Answers About Gamma-ray Bursts" 
DAV1DE LAZZATI, Osservatorio Astronomico di 
Brera, Italy 



Astrophysics Talk: "Adventures with Rubble Piles: 

The Evolution oi Fragile Planetesimals" 

DEREK RICHARDSON, University of Washington 



High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "On the 

D5-D1 Conformal Field Theory" 

ROBBERT DIJKGRAAF, University of Amsterdam 



Astrophysics Talk: "Gamma-ray Bursts and 
Afterglows: Some Recent Developments'' 
PETER MESZAROS, Institute for Advanced Study 
and PamsyU/ania Suae 1 huversuy 

Astrophysics Talk: "Why W^ Some of the Sub mil 
limetei Soun es I lave No ( )prJcal ( Counterparts? 
i Could li IV Source ( Confusion Alone.'" 
DAVID HOGG, Institute Advanced Study 



M 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



Astrophysics Talk: "Early Results from the Chandra 

X-ray Observatory" 

CLAUDE CANIZARES, Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology 



Astrophysics Talk: "R-modes: Another Window into 

Neutron Stars?" 

YURI LEVI, University of California, Berkeley 



Princeton/IAS High Energy Theory Seminar: 
"Holographic Reconstruction or Spacetime in the 
AdS/CFT Correspondence." 
KOSTAS SKENDERIS, Princeton University 



Astrophysics Talk: "The Mass Assembly History of 

Galaxies" 

RICHARD ELLIS, Caltech 

Princeton/IAS High Energy Theory Seminar: 
"Semiclassical Noncommutative Field Theory" 
ANDREW STROMINGER, Harvard University 



Astrophysics Talk: "The Violent X-ray Sky as Viewed 

by the All Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-ray Timing 

Explorer" 

HALE BRADT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



Princeton/IAS High Energy Theory Seminar: 

"Neutrinos from Heaven: Lessons for Model 

Building" 

YOSSI NIR, Weizmann Institute of Science and 

Institute for Advanced Study 

Astrophysics Talk: "To the Solution of the Solar 
Neutrino Correlations and Observables" 
ALEXEI SMIRNOV, International Center for Theoretical 
Physics, Trieste, and Institute for Advanced Study 



Astrophysics Talk: "Gravitational Radiation from 
Accreting Neutron Stars: Implications for 
Millisecond Pulsar Formation and LIGO" 
LARS BILDSTEN, Institute for Theoretical Physics, 
Santa Barbara 



Princeton/IAS High Energy Theory Seminar: 
"The Liouville Boundary Problem" 
JOERG TESCHNER, Dublin Institute 



Astrophysics Talk: "The Shape of Gravity With Extra 

Dimensions" 

LISA RANDALL, Princeton University 



Astrophysics Talk: "Detecting Cosmic Shear" 
DAVID WITTMAN, Bell Labs 



IAS/Princeton University High Energy Theory 
Seminar: "Quantum Field Theory as a Matrix Model" 
VLADIMIR KAZAKOV, Ecole Normole Supeneure 



Astrophysics Talk: "Dark Halo and Disk Galaxy 
Scaling Laws in Hierarchical Universes" 
MATTHIAS STEINMETZ, University of Arizona 



High Energy Theory Seminar: "T-duality, Non- 
commutative Geometry and the Born-Infeld Action" 
LORENZO CORNALBA, Institut des Hautes Etudes 
Scientifiques , France 

Astrophysics Talk: "Accretion Dynamics Near Black 

Holes" 

JULIAN KROLIK, Johns Hopkins University 



Astrophysics Talk: "Pulsar Inner Accelerators and 
Radio Emission Death Lines" 
BING ZHANG, NASA-GSFC 



Astrophysics Talk: "Atmospheres of the Close-in 

Extrasolar Giant Planets" 

SARA SEAGER, Insritute for Advanced Study 



Astrophysics Talk: "GRBs: What is New" 
SHRI KULKARNI, Caltech 

IAS/Princeton University High Energy Theory 
Seminar: "Brane-antibrane Constructions" 
SUNIL MUKHI, Tata Institute 



IAS/Princeton University High Energy Theory 
Seminar: "Monopoles and Their Gravitational Prop- 
erties Near the Black Hole Threshold" 
ARTHUR LUE, Columbia University 



Astrophysics Talk: "Accretion, Advection, 

Convection, Confusion" 

RAMESH NARAYAN, Harvard University 



^ 



Institute for advanced study 



Astrophysics Informal Discussion: "Implications of 

Recent CMB Measurements" 

WAYNE HU, Institute for Advanced Study 

Astrophysics Talk: "Physics in the Fluid Limit: 

Galaxies, X-ray Clusters and Dark Matter" 

GREY BRYAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



IAS/Princeton University High Energy Theory 
Lunchtime Seminar: "Branes and Strings as 
Noncommutative Solitons" 
JEFF HARVEY, University of Chicago 



Astrophysics Talk: "Exozodiacal Dust and Extrasolar 

Planet Detection" 

MARC J. KUCHNER, Coltech 



Astrophysics Talk: "Neutrino Astrophysics: IUPAP 

Centennial Lecture" 

JOHN BAHCALL, Institute for Advanced Study 



Astrophysics Talk: "Cross-correlating Weak Lensing 

Survey with CMB" 

KARIM BENABED, Saclay, France 



Astrophysics Talk: "Non Gaussianities Induced by 

Gravity" 

M ATIAS ZALDARRIAGA, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



Astrophysics Talk: "Sizing Up Close-in Planets 
Around Sun-like Stars" 

DAVID CHARBONNEAU, Harvard-Smithsonian 
C/A and National Center for Atmospheric Research 

IAS/Princeton University High Energy Theory 
Seminar: "A Derivation of K-theory from M-theory" 
GREG MOORE, Rutgro University 



IAS/Princeton University High Energy Theory 

Lunchtime Seminar: "One-dimensional Models of 

Stripes in Cuprate Superconductors" 

OLEG TCHERNYSHYOV, Institute far Advanced 

Study 



Astrophysics Talk: "Accreting Neutron Stars: The 

Link Between Magnetic Field Evolution and 

Gravitational Radiation" 

ANDREW MELATOS, University of California, 

Berkeley 



Astrophysics Talk: "Aperture Mass Statistics in Weak 

Lensing Surveys" 

FRANCIS BERNARDEAU, Saclay, France 

Astrophysics Talk: "Active Galactic Nuclei and 

Black Holes" 

AMRI WANDEL, Hebrew Institute of Jerusalem 



Astrophysics Talk: "Weak Lensing Measurements: 

Present and Future" 

LUDOVIC VAN WAERBEKE, CITA 



Astrophysics Talk: "Keck Studies of M31's Stellar 

Halo" 

PURAGRA GUHATHAKURTA, UCO/Lick 

Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz 



Astrophysics Talk: "Sgr A* — Towards the Event 

Horizon" 

HEINO FALCKE, Mox-Pknck-Institut fur Radioas- 



Astrophysics Talk: "The Boomerang CMB 

Measurement" 

ANDREW LANGE, Cflltedi 



Astrophysics I. ilk: "Gamma-ray Background trout 

Structure Formation" 

ELI WAXMAN, Weizmann Institute of Science 

Astrophysics Talk: "Tin- 1 Usury <>i the Discovery of 
D.irk Manet In die I Iniverse" 
SIDNEY VAN DEN BERGH, National Research 
Council, i'.anada 



S(, 




T derived enormous academic benefits from my year 
at the Institute and am extremely grateful for the 
opportunity to have been here. The research 
environment at the Institute is outstanding. It has 
been an invaluable opportunity for me to leave 
behind the daily demands of teaching and 
administration and devote myself entirely 
to my research." 

— Member, School of Social Science 



West Building, home to both the School of Hisioricai Studies and the School of Social Science. 



THE SCHOOl 



CLIFFORD GEERTZ, Harold F. Under Professor 

JOAN WALLACH SCOTT 
MICHAEL WALZER, UPS Foundation Professor 

ALBERT O. HIRSCHMAN 



ADAM ASHFORTH 



Nineteen scholars from the United States and abroad were invited to be part of the School's 
scholarly community as Members and visitors for the 1999-2000 academic year— from a 
pool of 158 individuals who applied for membership. One research assistant also partici- 
pated in the year's activities. The National Endowment for the Humanities partially or fully 
funded three fellows. Fields of inquiry of the group included anthropology, three; history, 
three; law, one; literature, one; philosophy, four; political science, five; and sociology, two. 

The theme for 1999-2000 was "the universalism of human rights." What is the history 
of the idea that human rights are universal rights? What is the history of political theo- 
ries that make universalist claims? What has been the political impact of recent human 
rights campaigns? What sorts of cultural (legal, religious, international) conflicts have 
emerged in the name of, or in opposition to, calls for enforcement of human rights? How 
have debates about the status of women or concern for the environment been articulat- 
ed in terms of human rights? Is recent (post- WWII) attention to questions of human 
rights an aspect of "globalization?" 

VISITING ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR ADAM ASHFORTH'S book Madumo, A Man 
Bewitched was published by the University of Chicago Press. A South African edition 
will be published in July. In addition to conference papers presented in Mombasa (Coun- 
cil for the Development of Social Research in Africa), Perth (African Studies Associa- 
tion of Australasia and the Pacific), and Philadelphia (African Studies Association), Pro- 
fessor Ashforth lectured at Harvard University, the University of Western Australia, and 
the University of the Witswatersrand on topics relating to the political dimensions of 
witchcraft and spiritual insecurity in contemporary South Africa. He also gave a talk to 
the "Friends' Forum" at the Institute. His article "Reflections sur L'Insecurite Spirituelle 
dans une Ville Africaine Moderne (Soweto)" was published in Politique Africaine. Tran- 
sition published his "Soweto Witch Project," and "Weighing Manhood in Soweto" 
appeared in Codesria Bulletin. 



89 



Institute for advanced study 



PROFESSOR CLIFFORD GEERTZ spoke in June 1999 at a semiotics conference at the 
lnstitut Ferdinand de Saussure Center, Archamps, Geneva; at the U.S. Embassy at Jakarta 
on the occasion of the 50 th anniversary of US-Indonesia relations in December 1999; at a 
conference on "Model Systems in the Social Sciences," Princeton History of Science 
Program, also in December; at a special session on his work at the Modern Language 
Association Meetings in Chicago, also in December; at Harvard, to the anthropology 
department and to the study of nationalism group in February; again at the Model Systems 
(in history) Workshop at Princeton University, in April 2000; and at a conference honor- 
ing his work in Sefrou, Morocco in May 2000. He traveled for research purposes to Indone- 
sia during November/December 1999 and Morocco during April/May 2000. His new book, 
Available Light: Anthropological Reflections on Philosophical Topics, was published in May by 
Princeton University Press. His earlier works The Interpretation of Cultures (1973) and 
Local Knowledge (1983) were reissued with new introductions in Basic Books' Classics 
Series. Articles published include: "Indonesia: Starting Over" (New York Review of Books), 
"Awas Buaya" (Mencari Demokrasi, Jakarta), "Geiger at Antioch" (The Antioch Review), 
"When the Poet Speaks Arabic" (To Be: 2B); "Afterword" (Interpreting Cultures, Twenry- 
Five Years Later, Bloomington); and "The Introduction into Anthropology of a Genuinely 
Historical Eye" (Journal of Victorian Culture). In July, exhausted by all of this, Professor 
Geertz retired. 

In October, PROFESSOR EMERITUS ALBERT O. HIRSCHMAN was the recipient of 
The Order of the Southern Cross bestowed upon him by the Brazilian Government. This 
decoration was decided on by the President of Brazil, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, and 
was presented to Professor Hirschman by the Ambassador, Rubens Barbosa, at the Brazil- 
ian Embassy in Washington, DC. 

Professor Hirschman spent one week (March 4-8) in Budapest and presented a paper on 
"The Paradoxes of Unintended Consequences" in honor of George Soros, the President 
of the Central European University in Budapest and the principal benefactor, on his sev- 
entieth birthday. 

In March/April, he spent four weeks in Berlin at the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin. The 
Rektor of the Institute, Wolf Lepenies, gave a speech in Professor Hirschman 's honor in 
celebration of his 85' 1 ' birthday. In April, Professor Hirschman spent a week in Rome. 

On May 6 ,h , the Albert O. Hirschman Chair in Economics was inaugurated at the Insti- 
tute. The celebration was attended by James D. Wolfensohn, President, The World 
Bank, and Chairman of the Board, Institute for Advanced Study; and by Ronaldo H. 
Schmitz and Wilfried Guth, Deutsche Bank AG, Trustees of the Institute for Advanced 
Study, who had contributed to the establishment of the Chair. 

Professor Hirschman has been notified that his book, Exit, Voice, and Loyalty, (Harvard 
University Press) will be printed in Chinese sometime next year. 

PROFESSOR JOAN SCOTT gave the Frederick Art: lecture .n Oberlin College; a 
Sawyer Seminar at Columbia University; and a paper .it a conference on contemporary 
French politics at Rutgers. She taught a short (two-week) course at the Central Euro- 
pean University in Budapest. She served on the Visiting Committee on Diversity ai 
Brown I fniversity and she continued to chair the Committee on Academic Freedom and 



90 



THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 



Tenure of the American Association of University Professors. In December 1999, she 
was awarded the Hans Sigrist Prize for excellence in scholarly research (in her case for 
her work in Gender Studies) by the University of Bern (Switzerland). She is in the 
process of writing a hook on the French movement for "parite," the recent successful 
attempt to grant equal participation in politics to men and women. 

During the academic year 1999-2000, PROFESSOR MICHAEL WALZER gave the 
Tasan Memorial lectures at four universities in Korea, and also lectured at Princeton and 
Columbia Universities, at Boston College, the University of San Diego, and the Catholic 
Theological Union in Chicago. He spoke in Frankfurt on the occasion of the 75' h 
anniversary of the Institute for Social Research, gave the keynote address at a conference 
on multiculturalism at the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain, and lectured 
on global governance (the subject also of his faculty lecture at the Institute) at the 
University of Padua in Italy. In May 2000, volume one of The Jewish Political Tradition, 
titled Authority, was published by Yale University Press, a collaborative project that he 
has been working on for the past decade. His Horkheimer lectures were published in 
Germany under the title Vemunft, Politik and Leidenshaft (Reason, Politics, and Passion). 
Two of his books, The Company of Critics and On Toleration appeared in Russian trans- 
lations; Spheres of Justice came out in Japanese and Korean; On Toleration also appeared 
in Portugese, Greek, Bulgarian, and Hebrew. 



9] 



Institute for advanced study 






RUTH ABBEY 
Political Science 
University of Notre Dame, Australia 

ANAT B1LETZKI 

Philosophy 

Tel Aviv University 

GILBERT CHA1TIN 

Literature 

Indiana University ■ n 

ALASTAIR DAVIDSON 

Political Science 

Swinburne University of Technology and 

Monash University 

JOAN FUJIMURA 

Anthropology 
Stanford University 

KENNETH GEORGE 

Anthropology 

University of Wisconsin, Madison 

CLAIRE JEAN KIM 

Political Science 

University of California, Irvine ■ n 

WOLF LEPENIES 

Sociology 

Wissenschaftskolleg :u Berlin • vf 

LI X1AORONG 

Philosophy 

University of Maryland 

LIANG ZHIPING 

Law 

( Ihinese Academy of Arts 

MENACHEM LORBERBAUM 
Political Science 
Tel Aviv University 



JEREMY MOON 

•Political Science 

University of Western Australia • vs 

ROXANNE PANCHASI 

History 

Rutgers University ■ a 

THOMAS POGGE 
Philosophy 
Columbia University 

MARY LOUISE ROBERTS 

History 

Stanford University 

KRISTIN ROSS 

French Cultural Studies 
New York University ■ n 

DANILYN RUTHERFORD 

Anthropology 

The University of Chicago 

CHARLES SHEPHERDSON 

Philosophy 

Emory University ■ v 

MOSHE SHOKEID 

Anthropology 

Tel Aviv University 

EVE TROUTT POWELL 

History 

University ot Georgia 



f First Term (Second Terra uVUitoi a Research Aoistani n NEH Supported 



92 



THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 



THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL 
RECORD OF I 



The following is a calendar of events sponsored by 
the School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "May 

'68 and Its Aftermath: Debates, Commemorations, 

Reprisals" 

KRISTIN ROSS, New York University; Member, 

School of Social Science 



Political Economy Seminar: Organizational Meeting 
JOAN SCOTT, Professor, School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"The White Edge of the Margin: Textuality and 
Authority in Biak, Irian Jaya, Indonesia" 
DANILYN RUTHERFORD, The University of 
Chicago; Member, School of Social Science 

Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Alastair 

Davidson, "Mildness: A New Civic Virtue" and 

Claire Kim, "The Racial Triangulation of Asian 

Americans." 

ALASTAIR DAVIDSON, Swinburne University 

of Technology and CLAIRE KIM, University of 

Calif mriia, Irvine; Members, School of Social Science 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Constructing the Rule of Law in China: An Internal 

Perspective" 

LIANG ZHIPING, Chinese Academy of Arts; 

Member, School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "'At 10 
A.M. Torture Stopped': Israel's Supreme Court and 
Human Rights" 

ANAT BILETZKI, Tel Aviv University; Member, 
School of Social Science 



Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Xiaorong 
Li, "Human Atrocities and Human Rights: A Political 
Justification of Universality" and Thomas Pogge, 
"Human Flourishing and Universal Justice." 
XIAORONG LI, University of Maryland and 
THOMAS POGGE, Columbia University; Members, 
School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"Al-Ikhlas and Aceh on Fifth Avenue: Becoming a 
Modem Indonesian Artist in New York" 
KEN GEORGE, University of Wisconsin, Madison; 
Member, School of Social Science 

Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Danilyn 
Rutherford, "Of Birds and Gifts: Reviving Tradition 
on an Indonesian Frontier" and Moshe Shokeid, 
"From Tearoom to Sanctuary." 
DANILYN RUTHERFORD, University of Chicago 
and MOSHE SHOKEID, Tel Aviv University; 
Members , School of Social Science 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Making Space for Leviathan — Hobbes' Political 

Theology" 

MENACHEM LOBERBAUM, Tel Aviv University; 

Member, School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "Maurice 
Barres and the Roots of French Nationalism: The Art 
of Being Particular" 

GILBERT CHAITIN, Indiana University; Member, 
School of Social Science 



93 



Institute for advanced study 



Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Liang 
Zhipinv;, "Tradition and Its Change: Law and Order 
in a Pluralist Landscape" and Eve Troutt Powell, 
"From Odyssey to Empire: Geographical Images of 
the Sudan in Egyptian Literature in the Mid-Nine- 
teenth Century." 

LIANG ZHIPING, Chinese Academy of Arts and EVE 
TROUTT POWELL, University of Georgia; Members, 
School of Social Science 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "Social 

Criticism and Social Theory" 

MICHAEL WALZER, Professor, School of Social Science 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "Exile 
and Emigration: The Survival of 'German Culture'" 
WOLF LEPENIES, Wissenchaftskolleg xv Berlin; 
Visitor, School of Social Science 

Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Ruth 
Abbey, "In a Similar Voice: Nietzsche's Critique of 
Human Rights"; Anat Riletzki, "In Defense of 
Dogma"; and Gilbert Chaitin, "Lacan With Adorno? 
The Question of Fascist Rationalism." 
RUTH ABBEY, University of Notre Dame, Australia, 
ANAT BILETZKI, Tel Aviv University, and GILBERT 
CHAITIN, Indiana University; Members, School of 
Social Science 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"Reflections on Spiritual Insecurity and Political 
Power in Post-Apartheid Soweto" 
ADAM ASHFORTH, Visiting Associate Professor, 
School of Social Science 



Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Menachem 
Lorberbaum, Yair Lorberbaum, Michael Walzer, and 
Noam Zohar, The Jewish Political Tradition, Authority 
(vol. 1), Chapter 10 - "The State of lsr.nl " 
MENACHEM LORBERBAUM, Tel Atw University; 
Memher, School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "The 

Ir.mxionn.uion of Gender Relationships in a Gay 

Synogogue" 

Ml 61 IK SHOKEID, Tel Am University; Member, 

School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "Justice" 
THOMAS POGGE, Columbia University; Member, 
School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
."Vengeance and the Rule of Law: Should We Redraw 
the Boundaries?" 

ALASTAIR DAVIDSON, Swinburne University of 
Technology; Member, School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"Millenial Fantasies: The Future of 'Gender' in the 
Twenty-first Century" 
JOAN SCOTT, Professor, School of Social Science 



Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Noga 
Tarnopolsky, "The Family That Disappeared." 
NOGA TARNOPOLSKY, Amherst College 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"The Tools of the Master: Slavery and Empire in 
Nineteenth-century Egypt" 
EVE TROUTT POWELL, University of Georgia; 
Member, School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"Transnational Science and Culture: Views of 
Genomics from Japan" 

JOAN FUJ1MURA, Stanford University; MembeT, 
School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Confuscianism, Human Rights, and the Politics of 

Culture" 

X1AORONG LI, University of Maryland; Member. 

School of Social Science 



Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Thomas 
Pogge, "Anthropology and Universal Justice." 
THOMAS POGGF. Columbia I Wverrity; Member, 
School of Social Science 



94 



THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"Business Social Responsibility, New Governance 
and Globalisation" 

JEREMY MOON, University of Western Australia; 
Visitor, School of Social Science 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"Playing the Racial Trump Card: Asian Americans 
and Contemporary U.S. Politics" 
CLAIRE KIM, University of California, Irvine; 
Member, School of Social Science 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "Up 
Close and Personal: English-Australian Women Talk 
about Citizenship" 

RUTH ABBEY, University of Notre Dame, Australia; 
Member, School of Social Science 



Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Walter 
Benjamin, "Critique of Violence"; Christian Krohn- 
Hansen, "The Anthropology of Violent Interaction" 
Paul Heelas, "Anthropology, Violence and Catharsis" 
and David Riches, "AggTession, War, Violence: 
Space/Time and Paradigm." 
JOSEPH RAZ, Columbia University 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "Right 
to Self-Determination in Africa: A Liberal Democra- 
tic Approach" 

SIMEON ILESANMI, Center for Human Values, 
Princeton University 

Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Peter 

Singer, "A Darwinian Left." 

PETER SINGER, Princeton University 

Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Sonia 
Bhalotra, "Is Child Work Necessary?" 
SONIA BHALOTRA, University of Cambridge 



Political Economy Seminar: Discussion of Naomi 
Schor, "French Feminism Is a Universalism" and Eric 
Fassin, "Fearful Symmetry: Culturalism and Cultural 
Comparison after Tocqueville." 
STANLEY HOFFMANN, Minda de Gunzburg Center 
for European Studies, Harvard University 



Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "The 
Fantastic Sarah Bernhardt: Gender and Theater in 
Fin-de-siecle France" 

MARY LOUISE ROBERTS, Stanford University; 
Member, School of Social Science 



95 




T 



his has been an intellectually demanding but 
highly rewarding time and I am convinced 
that the experience I've gained will be of 
invaluable benefit for my future work." 

— Member, School of Mathematics 



Walter Fontana, left, a Member in the Institutes s Program in Theoretical Biology, with Martin Nou'oic, Head of the program. 



PRO< 



The current areas of research in the Program in Theoretical Biology are evolutionary the- 
ory and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Of special interest are mathematical models 
of viral infections, anti-viral therapy and drug resistance. Research in evolutionary the- 
ory deals with the evolution of fairness, altruistic behavior and human language. Some 
new questions in oncology and genomics are being explored. 

The program is led by Martin Nowak and includes six Members: Walter Fontana, David 
Krakauer, Alun Lloyd, Karen Page, Lindi Wahl, and Dominik Wodarz. Fontana, a 
Research Professor at the Santa Fe Institute, was a Member for the 1999-2000 academic 
year. Joshua Plotkin, a Ph.D. student at Princeton University, began working with 
Nowak this year. Nowak also collaborated with two members of the School of Mathe- 
matics, Peter Trapa and Natalia Komarova. 

There have been a number of outside collaborations with experimental groups, including 
Charles Bangham (Imperial College) on HTLV-1 infection; Jeffrey Lifson (National 
Cancer Institute) on SIV/HIV dynamics;. Andrew McMichael (University of Oxford) and 
George Shaw (University of Alabama, Birmingham) on HIV infection; Rolf Zinkernagel 
(University Hospital of Zurich) and Allan Thomsen (University of Copenhagen) on 
LCMV infection; Peter Doherty (St. Jude's Hospital) on murine respiratory infections; 
Lynn Enquist (Princeton University) on CNS infection; and Stuart Sealfon (Mount Sinai 
Medical School) on signal transduction. 

On January 1 1 th , the Institute for Advanced Study and The Rockefeller University joint- 
ly sponsored a symposium, "Modeling Life Processes." Institute Member Walter Fontana 
spoke on "RNA as a Model System for the Study of Evolution." On June 27 th , scientists 
from the Molecular Biology and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Departments at 
Princeton University met at the Institute with biology program Members for a half-day 
session on influenza virus. There have been several meetings between Dr. Arnold 
Levine's research group at The Rockefeller University and the Institute's biology program 
to identify areas of collaboration on tumor biology. 

In January 2000, with Charles Bangham and Robert May, Nowak organized a Royal Soci- 
ety Discussion Meeting in London on "Virus Dynamics." In July 2000, Martin Nowak 
and Karl Sigmund organized "European Science Days" in Steyr, Austria. Nowak gave 
seminars at Harvard Medical School, MIT, Princeton University, the Bristol-Myers- 
Squibb Research Institute, the NEC Research Institute, and the Gordon Conference in 
Theoretical Biology. Nowak received the Roger F. Murray Award for the most outstand- 
ing paper of the Q-Group's 1999 Seminars. 

Specific Research Projects 

Martin Nowak has a long-standing research interest in the dynamics of viral and other 
infectious diseases and works on the evolution of resistance during anti-viral, anti-bacteri- 
al and anti-cancer treatment. Dominik Wodarz and Martin Nowak analyzed the effect of 
memory-immune responses in virus infections. Martin Nowak and Robert May finished a 
book, Virus Dynamics, which will be published by Oxford University Press in fall 2000. 



99 



Institute for advanced study 



Nowak is working <>n a mathematical theory for the evolution and population dynamics 
nt human language. With Joshua Plotkin and Vincent Jansen (University of London), he 
studied the conditions for the evolution of syntactic communication. With Natalia 
Komarova and Partha Niyogi (University of Chicago), he formulated a theory for the evo- 
lution "t universal grammar. This work specifies the constraints that universal grammar 
has to impose for a population to evolve and maintain a coherent grammatical system. 
Nowak currently works on a similar framework tor the acquisition of the lexical matrix. 
Peter Trapa and Martin Nowak performed a Nash-equilibrium analysis of lexical matrices. 

Nowak is interested in the evolutionary dynamics of the Ultimatum Game. In recent 
years, there has been tremendous interest among economists and psychologists in a very 
puzzling, experimental observation: when humans are asked to split a certain amount of 
money, according to the rules of the Ultimatum Game, they discard the rational solution 
in favor of fairness. Nowak, together with Karen Page and Karl Sigmund (Vienna), 
developed an evolutionary approach to the Ultimatum Game. A key observation was 
that fairness out-competes reason if there is some possibility that individuals can obtain 
information on outcomes of previous interactions. 

Walter Fontana's research explores how self-sustaining chemical systems emerge and how 
to develop a formal method to classify their possible changes. His work goes beyond Dar- 
winian selection, which may explain which of two alternative molecular systems will 
come to dominate an environment under certain conditions but cannot explain how 
these alternatives originated in the first place nor offer a complete spectrum of what else 
could have been possible. While at the Institute, Fontana focused on three areas: geno- 
typ phenotype relations and evolutionary dynamics, evolutionary RNA games and mol- 
ecular signal transduction. 

David Krakauer works on the evolution of prion proteins and related autocatalytie poly- 
mers, selection acting on signal transduction networks, stability properties of parasite 
genomes, and the evolution of sign systems. Each of these problems is characterized by 
the need to encode heritable information at distinct levels of biological organization, 
where selection pressures are often independent or in conflict. He has made progress in 
modeling the dynamics of infection of the nervous system, demonstrating the influence 
of neural topology on disease propagation, and has investigated viral genome stability in 
the presence ol defective interfering particles, and cellular computation in the GNRH- 
receptor signal transduction pathways. He was given a visiting assistant professorship at 
the Department oi Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Princeton University, and made 
a consultant to the Program on Robustness at the Santa Fe Institute, lie continues to 
work with his experimental collaborators, Professor Lynn Enquist and Dr. Stuart Sealfon. 

Alun Lloyd joined the biology program in fall 1999. Before arriving at the Institute, he was 
Medical Research Council Postdoctoral Research bellow, working in the Mathematical 
Bi( <\>x\ research group in the Department of Zoology of the I Iniversity of Oxford and a lec- 
turer at St. 1 1 1 Ida's I follege, where he taught statistics. One of Lloyd's current projects is an 
investigation of stochasticit) and heterogeneities in transmission on the dynamics of child- 

hi M id diseases In parlk iil.tr. he is working on using recently developed mathematical mod- 
els to develop and inform control strategies lor such diseases as measles. He also works on 
the within host dynamics ol \ iral diseases, sm h as HIV. 



100 



Program in theoretical biology 



Karen Page, a mathematician, analyzed the evolutionary dynamics Ultimatum Game. 
She studied the consequence of reputation and spatial effects. Page formulated a novel 
adaptive dynamics approach for the Ultimatum Game and showed that fairness can 
evolve if a small fraction of the population adhere to a "Silver Rule" (offer the minimum 
amount that you would demand for yourself). 

Joshua Plotkin studied mathematics at Harvard University. He researches the determi- 
nants of biodiversity in tropical forests. Based upon data from forests across the globe, 
Plotkin has developed predictive methods to assess large-scale diversity from small-scale 
censuses. These mathematical models are applicable to the conservation of tropical forests, 
and they are currently being used to design renewable forestry protocols in northern 
Malaysia, under a grant from the World Bank. 

Lindi Wahl trained in engineering and medical physics and did a D.Phil, in neurobiolo- 
gy at the University of Oxford. Her research contributions have included mathematical 
models of a range of biological systems with emphases on pharmaceutical kinetics and 
neurobiology. She worked on resistance and adherence in HIV therapy, tracer kinetics 
in positron tomography, and mathematical models of experimental evolution. 

Dominik Wodarz studied biology at Imperial College for Science, Technology 6k Medi- 
cine in London and did a Ph.D. with Martin Nowak at Oxford. He works on mathe- 
matical models of host defenses, with special focus on immunity against virus infections 
(especially HIV, HTDV, LCMV, and influenza). Wodarz studies factors determining virus 
clearance versus persistent infection. This has important implications for drug and 
immuno-therapy against human pathogens. In addition, he works on aspects of tumor 
biology with special attention to cancer progression and therapy. Wodarz's work is also 
characterized by several long-term collaborations with experimental scientists including 
Dr. Jeffrey Lifson, Dr. Allan Randrup Thomsen, Dr. Charles R. M. Bangham, and Dr. 
Peter Doherty. 



101 



Institute for advanced study 



The Program in Theoretical Biology Lecture Series 

Each year, distinguished scientists in diverse areas of biology are invited to lecture at the 
Institute. The lecture series is coordinated with a similar series at Princeton University 
and is funded by the J. Seward Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts. The following lectures 
were presented during the 1999-00 academic year: 

September 29 "Simplicity and Complexity in Population Dynamics" 
Andreas Herz, Humboldt University 

October 10 "Animal Behavior and the Evolution of Cooperation" 

Lee Alan Dugatkin, University of Louisville 

October 27 "The Evolution of the Social Brain" 

Robin Dunbar, University of Liverpool 

November 10 "Insights into the Pathogenesis and Prevention of AIDS from 
Studies in Non-human Primates" 
Jeffrey D. Lifson, M.D., National Cancer Institute 

December 8 "Is HIV Infection Curable? Exploring the Limits of Antiretroviral 

Therapy" 
Robert E Siliciano, Johns Hopkins University 

December 15 "Epigenetics: Its Mechanism and Impact on Cenetic Diversity" 
Shirley Tilghman, Princeton University 

February 2 "The Evolution of Language" 

Martin Nowak, Institute for Advanced Study 

February 9 "Models for Insect Locomotion or How Cockroaches Get Away" 

Philip Holmes, Princeton University 

February 16 "Cooperation and Self-interest: Pareto-inefficiency of Nash Equilibria 

in Finite Random Games" 
Joel Cohen, The Rockefeller University 

April 5 "More is Simpler: The Neurobiology of Sensors- Information Processing" 

John J. Hopfield, Princeton University 

May 17 "Entropy, Complexity and Learning" 

William Bialek, NEC Research Institute 



102 



THI: 

The Historical Studies-Social Science Library [Marcia Tucker, Librarian] contains some 
100,000 volumes and has subscriptions to about 1,000 journals. The library is strongest 
in classical studies, ancient history and archaeology, but it contains basic document col- 
lections, reference works and important secondary works of scholarship in most fields of 
history and the social sciences. The journal collection is extensive, and fairly complete 
back runs exist to the founding of the Institute. The library has occupied its present 
building since 1964- 

The Institute's rare book collection, the gift of Lessing J. Rosenwald, consists of about 
2,000 volumes on the history of science and was compiled by Herbert M. Evans in the 
1930's. The collection, which is housed in a special room, includes numerous first edi- 
tions of important scientific works in mathematics, astronomy, physics and the life sci- 
ences. 

The library has an extensive collection of offprints including those received by Professors 
Andrew E.Z. Alfoldi, Kurt Godel, Ernst H. Kantorowicz, Elias Avery Lowe, Millard 
Meiss, Erwin Panofsky, and former Members Robert Huygens and Walther Kirchner. 

The microfilm collections of the library include a large selection from Manuscripta, a col- 
lection of several thousand fifteenth- to nineteenth-century printed books from the Vat- 
ican Library. The Bavarian Academy has given the Institute a microfilm copy of slips pre- 
sented for the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. The library has microfilm copies of the papers 
of Albert Einstein, Kurt Godel and Simone Weil. 

The Historical Studies-Social Science Library houses the Institute archives. The papers 
in the collection date from the 1930's and include official correspondence of the Direc- 
tor's Office, minutes of meetings of the Faculty and the Board of Trustees, miscellaneous 
correspondence concerning past Faculty members, records of the Electronic Computer 
Project and other documents. The archives also include the Institute's extensive photo- 
graph collection. 

The Mathematics-Natural Sciences Library [Momota Ganguli, Librarian] is located on 
the second floor of Fuld Hall and contains some 30,000 volumes (bound periodicals and 
monographs) plus subscriptions to nearly 200 journals. Its collection of older periodicals 
is housed in compact shelving on the lower level of the Historical Studies-Social Science 
Library. The subject areas covered by the library are pure and applied mathematics, astro- 
physics, and theoretical, particle and mathematical physics. 

Both of the Institute's libraries participate in the shared cataloging system of the Research 
Libraries Group, which gives Institute scholars computerized access to a database that 
contains more than twenty-two million records. Searches of this database retrieve bibli- 
ographic information and identify the location of materials in all participating libraries. 
Access to electronically-cataloged titles is available via Horizon, the Institute's web- 
accessible online catalog. The Institute's libraries are participants in the JSTOR project, 
which makes available archival electronic versions of many core journals in math. 



103 



Libraries 



The Historical Studies-Social Science Library maintains a computer center with access 
to a variety of word processing packages for both PCs and Macintoshes, access to data- 
bases in the fields of Classical Studies, the 1 listoiy oi Science, Islamic and French stud- 
ies, and connection software to the Internet for additional information resources. The 
Mathematics-Natural Sciences Library's electronic resources include an online catalog, a 
variety of indexes, and .1 growing collection oi lull-text journals. 

All scholars affiliated with the Institute enjoy the same privileges as Princeton Universi- 
ty faculty in the Harvey S. Firestone Memorial Library and the nineteen special-subject 
libraries in the Princeton University Library system and also in the Robert E. Speei 

Library o( the Princeton Theological Seminary. 

The librarians and the Faculties of all four Schools at the Institute warmly appreciate gifts 
of books and articles from former and current Members of the Institute. 



104 




T 



he high level of intellectual activity at the Institute 
is certainly a stimulus to think hard, 
and produce results." 

— Member, School of Natural Sciences 



Julian Bigelou', Herman Golastme, Robert Oppenheimer, and John von Neumann, with the 
Institute for Advanced Study computer in the background. 



IE FOR A. 

The IAS/Park City Mathematics Institute (PCMI) is an integtated mathematics ptogtam 
that has been sponsoted by the Institute for Advanced Study since 1993-94- Participants 
of PCMI include research mathematicians, graduate students, undergraduate students, 
mathematics education researchers, undergraduate faculty, and high school teachers. 
The integration of these diverse groups fosters a stronger sense of the mathematical enter- 
prise as a whole and raises awareness of ongoing work in different areas of the mathe- 
matics community. 

A major activity of PCMI is the annual three-week Summer Session. Throughout the 
year, programs also include the year-long High School Teacher Program, the Mentoring 
Program for Women in Mathematics, the Continuing Outreach Program, and the Lec- 
ture Publication Series. 

Summer Session 

The 10 th annual Summer Session of the IAS/Park City Mathematics Institute (PCMI) 
was held July 16-August 5, 2000, at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New 
Jersey. A total of 205 participants were, involved in this year's program, with 80 in the 
Graduate Summer School, 30 in the Research Program, 33 in the High School Teacher 
Program, 27 in the Undergraduate Program, 11 in the Undergraduate Faculty Program, 
and 12 in the Mathematics Education Research Program. Twelve guests also were in 
attendance. 

Each year, a specific field in mathematics is chosen to provide the focus for the overall 
programming. The research topic for this summer was Computational Complexity 
Theory, organized by Avi Wigderson of the Institute for Advanced Study and The 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and Steven Rudich of Carnegie Mellon University. Pro- 
fessor Wigderson is a leading researcher in the field of Computational Complexity The- 
ory, and Professor Rudich is an outstanding researcher and educator in this field. 

Each of the six programs met daily for its own series of courses and seminars. The groups 
also met together for an afternoon Cross Program Activity four days per week. A 
complete listing of courses, seminars, and activities follows. 

The High School Teacher Program 

PCMI's High School Teachet Program serves as a national model of professional devel- 
opment for teachers. The daily schedule for the Summer Session 2000 consisted of three 
courses as well as ptesentations by returning Teachers- in-Residence, and group and 
individual presentations by the participating teachers of this year's program. This is the 
second year of the two-year program cycle for these participants. 

The program suffered a loss this summer with the untimely death of Cynthia Hays, a 
leader in the program and a member of the PCMI Steering Committee for the last eight 
years. Ms. Hays was an inspiration to teachers and leaders alike, and her perspective as 
a high school teacher proved to be invaluable to the Steering Committee. Her presence 
will be sorely missed at PCMI. 



107 



Institute for advanced study 



The daily courses were Building Mathematics in the Classroom, Susan Addington, Califor- 
nia State University, San Bernardino, Advanced Mathematics, John Polking, Rice Uni- 
veisity, and Teaching with Technology, James King, University of Washington. Hands-on 
methods and activities were explored during Building Mathematics in the Classroom and 
during the many presentations done by the Teachers-in-Residence and the teacher- 
participants. The Advanced Mathematics class studied Spherical Geometry and Cartogra- 
phy, and the main thrust of the Teaching with Technology class was learning to work 
with software such as Geometer's Sketchpad and with Tl-83 graphing calculators, 
illustrating concepts from both Building Mathematics in the Classroom and the Advanced 
Mathematics classes. 

Course and presentation titles were: 

Reflections, A Feet-on Activity 

Creating Web Pages 

Transformation and Coordinates, with a Drawing Acta u\ 

Conies 

Vectors , Coordinates and Postscript 

Transformations and Matrices in the Core Plus Curriculum 

More Transformations: Shears ai\d Strains 

Cartography 

Spherical Geometry 

Curve Drawing Devices 

Dissections, Area and Transformations 

History of Non-euclidean Geometry 

Transformations and Problem Solving in Geometer's Sketchpad 

Drawing a Conic with Only a Ruler 

A Special Ratio Locus 

Euclidean Geometry as a Limit of Spherical/Non-euclidean Geometry 

Constructing Tensegrity Structures 

Activities with Fractals 

Space Filling 

Transformations and Symmetry in 3 Dimensions 

Making Connections 

Linear Algebra - Activities for Algebra I with Extensions to Geometry and Algebra Jl 

Brain-based Learning 

Rotation/Measurement 

Geometric Progression on a Triangle 

Geometric Transformation and Music 

Calculator and i leometric TramformatL ms 

Poly-Swi:cl Projet I 

Writing in the Math Classn k mi 

/ listary oj Mathematu s 

Polyhedra Models m < higami and Then Eider c '.haracteristii 

Postscript Language 

A special presentation was made In teacher participants from the Program in Mathe- 
matics foi Young Scientists (PROMYS) ai Boston University, PROMYS and us sister 

program, the Ross Summei Mathematics Program, will be collaborative partners in 
tea< her enhancement with Pi 'Ml, beginning in 2001 . 



k\s 



IAS/PARK CITY MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 



PCMI's future plans involve utilizing selected teachers in leadership positions for focused pro- 
jects in statistics and in physics and mathematics during the 2001 Summer Session. In par- 
ticular, one plan will bring a group of teachers to next year's Summer Session for two weeks' 
immersion in the topic of statistics and the review and production of classroom activities, 
including the connections to the underlying mathematics. After this two-week immersion, 
these teachers will meet for the third week of PCMI with the teacher/co-researchers from 
PCMI's Mathematics Education Researchers to discuss best practice for teaching and learn- 
ing statistics at the secondary level. The discussions will result in plans for a full-scale pro- 
gram in the summer of 2002, leading eventually to the production and classroom testing of a 
volume on statistics activities for classroom teachers. This dovetails with a project begun by 
the Mathematics Education Research Program at this year's Summer Session, and will result 
in contributing to a national agenda for the K-16 teaching of probability and statistics. 

The year-round site program for high school teachers continues at the following current 
sites: California State University, San Bernardino; Rider University; University of 
Cincinnati; and the University of Michigan, Dearborn. All of the PCMI teachers con- 
tinue to be active in site groups, either with group activities or with individual presenta- 
tions on in-service days or at regional, state, and local chapters of the National Council 
of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). 

In November of 1999, two PCMI alumni teachers traveled to Portugal to speak at the 
Portuguese National Mathematics Educators conference. These teachers gave a presen- 
tation on Transformational Geometry and a workshop on Non-euclidean Geometry. 
Both presentations were translated for the Portuguese audience. 

In the Continuing Outreach Program, the alumni sites remain active. Most notably, the 
University of Washington site group will sponsor its 6 th annual residential geometry 
institute for teachers in the Pacific Northwest, the Duke University alumni site contin- 
ues to sponsor an annual multi-day workshop for geometry teachers, and the Rice School 
Mathematics Project, supported by the PCMI Rice University site, continues to run 
strong programming in Houston, Texas. 

The teachers of PCMI report a renewed sense of enthusiasm and a new confidence in 
teaching from their participation in PCMI. This renewed enthusiasm is carried back to 
their classrooms, to their colleagues through the in-service teacher enhancement projects 
they lead, and to the hundreds of students they teach. 

Mathematics Education Research Program 

The Mathematics Education Research Program met for five days during the first week of 
PCMI this year. The program was organized by Joan Ferrini-Mundy of Michigan State 
University, Timothy Kelly of Hamilton College and Richard Lehrer of the University of 
Wisconsin. Professor Ferrini-Mundy most recently chaired the writing group of the Stan- 
dards and Principles for School Mathematics for the National Council of Teachers of Math- 
ematics. There were 12 distinguished researchers and statisticians in the Mathematics 
Education Research Program, and the focus of their work is to determine curriculum and 
best practice for K-16 education in probability and statistics. This project will continue 
through the 2000-2001 academic year, with an additional meeting of all participants in 
January of 2001. At least two journal publications will be the result of the initial phase 
of this project. 



109 



Institute for advanced study 



Undergraduate Faculty Program 

The Undergraduate Faculty Program also met during the first week of PCM1 this year. 
The program, organized by Daniel Goroff of Harvard University and Joseph Malkevitch 
of City University of New York, York College, attracted mathematicians and computer 
scientists from a variety of colleges and universities across the country, including Puerto 
Rico. Some participants were already knowledgeable about the research topic of Com- 
putational Complexity Theory. All were interested in helping their departments adjust 
to changing demographics and demand for courses due to the increasing popularity of 
computer science. The Undergraduate Faculty Program participants attended classes 
offered by the other programs, and welcomed many participants from the other programs 
to their events. The participants of this program also hosted a video festival each after- 
noon, showing pedagogical films from TIMSS, from the Derek Bok Center, and from 
other sources. 

Seminar titles: 

Discrete Mathematics and Other New Curricula for Liberal Arts Students; Math Courses for 

Computing, Science, Engineering, and Other Client Disciplines; Reshaping the Mathematics 

Major. 

Clay Mathematics Institute/Park City Mathematics Institute Program for 
Undergraduates 

This year's program for undergraduate students was sponsored by generous funding from 
the Clay Mathematics Institute of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Twenty-seven undergrad- 
uates were involved in the program, an increase of 7 participants over previous years. 
The Undergraduate program lecturers were David Mix Barrington, University of Massa- 
chusetts, Amherst, and Alexis Maciel, Clarkson University. 

Lecture titles for the two undergraduate courses: 

Algebra and Regular Languages 

Problems, Models, and Classes 

Graph Reachability and Space-bounded Computation 

Reductions and Completeness 

Boolean Formulas, NC 1 , and M-programs 

Arithmetic and Threshold Circuits 

NP-complete Problems 

Chinese Remainder Representation 

Complete Problems for Other Complexity Classes 

Logspace Division and Its Consequences 

ACO Circuits Cannot Compute Parity 

Measuring the Complexity of Proofs 

Proofs , Games , and Alternation 

Randomized Computation 

Polynomial-size Frege Proofs of the Pigeonhole Principle 

Interactive Proofs 

A Lower Bound for Tree Eesolution 

IP=PSPACE 

The Interpolation Method 

A Brie/ / noli ai Probabilistically Checkable Proofs 



110 



IAS/PARK CITY MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 



In addition to the daily lecture series, there was a problem session held each evening for 
the undergraduates. Several undergraduate participants also attended the lectures of the 
Graduate Summer School. 

Graduate Summer School and Research Program 

The Graduate Summer School met for three formal lectures each day and two problem 
sessions. More so than in past years, the participants of the Research Program also 
attended the lectures of the Graduate Summer School. 

The lecture series were as follows: 

Introduction to Complexity Theory Through Its Open Questions, Steven Rudich, Carnegie 

Mellon University 

Exploring Complexity Through Reductions , Sanjeev Arora, Princeton University 

Quantum Computing, Ran Raz, Weizmann Institute of Science 

Communications Complexity , Ran Raz 

Proof Complexity , Paul Beame, University of Washington 

Algebraic Complexity, Michael Ben-Or, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel 

Pseudorandomness: Blum-Micali-Yao Framework, Oded Goldreich, Weizmann 

Institute of Science 

Interactive Proofs, Salil Vadhan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Pseudorandomness: Nisan-Wigderson Framework, Luca Trevisan, Columbia University 

Probabilistically Checkable Proofs, Madhu Sudan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

The Research Program held eight seminars during the three-week Summer Session: 

Chemoff Type Bounds for Sum of Dependent Random Variables and Their Applications in 

Randomized Algorithms, Van Vu, Microsoft Research 

Phase Transitions in Computer Science, Part I and Part 11, Jennifer Chayes and Christian 

Borgs, Microsoft Research 

Enormous Integers in Real Life, Harvey Friedman, The Ohio State University 

Computation on Groups. A Bird's Eye View, Igor Pak, Massachusetts Institute of 

Technolgy 

The Zig-Zag Graph Product, and Elementary Construction of Expander Graphs, 

Omer Reingold, AT&T and Institute for Advanced Study 

Diophantine Equations in Two-variables, Minhyong Kim, University of Arizona 

Natural Proofs, Steven Rudich, Carnegie Mellon University 

Cross Program Activities 

The Cross Program Activities consist of a formal presentation four times each week, plus 
several evening gatherings and social occasions throughout the Summer Session. 

Formal presentations wete made on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday afternoons in 

Wolfensohn Hall. Titles were as follows: 

Some Fundamental Insights of Computational Complexity Theory, Avi Wigderson, Institute 

for Advanced Study 

Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics , Liping Ma, author 

Mathematics, Music, and the Sublime, Edward Rothstein, The New York Times, and Robert 

Taub, Institute for Advanced Study 



111 



Institute for advanced study 



What is Happening at Discretemath.com! Steven Rudich, Carnegie Mellon University 

The Coordination of Table Algorithms with Geometry Leading to the Creation of Continuous 

Exponents: John Wallis and the Seventeenth-century Experiments That Led to the Possibility 

of Calculus, David Dennis, University of Texas, El Paso 

Technically Speaking: Thoughts on Lecturing and Teaching, Steven Rudich 

PROMYS and Ross Programs, Glenn Stevens, Boston University, and Daniel Shapiro, 

The Ohio State University 

The Digital Envelope — A Crash Course in Modem Cryptography, Avi Wigderson 

Math and Math Learning in Israel (personal impressions), panel discussion moderated by 

Michael Ben-Or, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel 

The Classroom Stage, Blaga Pauley, California State University, San Bernardino 

The computer lab, under the direction of James King of the University of Washington, 
was equipped with a variety of computer hardware and software, providing Windows, 
Macintosh, and Linux platforms for participants' use. Software and equipment donated 
by manufacturers and individual donors included Microsoft Office 2000, Mathematica by 
Wolfram Research, Cabri Geometry by Texas Instruments, Geometer's Sketchpad by Key 
Curriculum Press, Maple by Waterloo Maple, Y&Y TeX, TeXtures by Blue Sky Research, 
and Tl-92 calculators by Texas Instruments. The lab was a valuable resource for educa- 
tional and computational work as well as Internet access, and it was in use around the 
clock. 

On July 20'\ through the generous sponsorship of the Huntsman Foundation, PCMI 
hosted a concert by Robert Taub, Artist-in-Residence at the Institute for Advanced 
Study. PCMI participants and Institute community members attended the piano concert 
in Wolfensohn Hall on the Institute campus. Robert Taub and Edward Rothstein of The 
New York Times gave a pre-concert discussion to the PCMI participants during the Cross 
Program Activity on the day of the concert. 

Casual interaction among the participants was also fostered at pizza parties, study ses- 
sions, barbecue dinners, and during weekend trips organized by the participants. 

Publication Series 

This past year saw the publication of Volume 8 in the American Mathematical Society's 

Park City Mathematics Series. It is expected that Volume 9, from the Summer Session of 

1999, will be published in late 2000. The full series, which comprises nearly all of the 

lectures ever given in PCMI's Graduate Summer School, now includes the following 

titles: 

Vi ilume 1, Geometry arui Quantum Field Theory; 

Volume 2, Nonlinear Partial I KfferenUal Equations in Differential Geometry; 

Volume 3, Complex Algebraic Geometry; 

Volume 4, Gauge Theory and Four Manifolds; 

Volume 5, Hyperbolic Equations and Frequency Interactions; 

Volume 6, Probability Theory and Applications; 

Volume 7, Symplectit Geometry and Topology; 

Volume 8, Representation Theory of I ie < rroups. 



112 



IAS/PARK CITY MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 



All titles are available either from the American Mathematical Society or through pop- 
ular bookstores such as Barnes and Noble. 

A new Park City Mathematics Institute Subseries was established in the AMS Student Math- 
ematics Series this year. These volumes are aimed at undergraduate students and are pub- 
lished independently of the Park City Mathematics Series (mentioned above). Published 
this year were: 

Lectures on Contemporary Probability by Gregory F. Lawler and Lester N. Coyle 
An Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Waves by Roger Knobel 
Codes and Curves by Judy L. Walker. 

Funding 

The IAS/Park City Mathematics Institute was made possible by the generosity of the fol- 
lowing hinders: 

Chautauqua Programs 

Clay Mathematics Institute 

Datek Online Holdings Corporation 

Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation 

Merrill Lynch Co., Inc. Foundation 

National Science Foundation 

State of New Jersey 

RGK Foundation 

William A. Schreyer 

Alfred and Ellen Schwartz Philanthropic Fund 

The Spencer Foundation 

The Starr Foundation 

Toyota USA Foundation 

Oversight Board 

The IAS/Park City Mathematics Institute is governed by an Oversight Board: 

Chairperson: 

Phillip A. Griffiths, Director, Institute for Advanced Study 
Board Members: 

Hyman Bass, University of Michigan 

Herbert C. Clemens, Professor, University of Utah 

Ronald L. Graham, Professor, University of California, San Diego 

Shirley A. Hill, Professor Emeritus, University of Missouri, Kansas City 

David Hespe, New Jersey Commissioner of Education 

Robert D. MacPherson, Professor, School of Mathematics, Institute 

for Advanced Study 

William A. Schreyer, Chairman Emeritus, Merrill Lynch 6k Co., Inc. 

Elaine B. Wolfensohn, New York, New York. 



113 



Institute for advanced study 



Steering Committee 

Members of the Steering Committee plan and manage the activities of the PCMI as fol- 
lows: 

Chair: 

Herbert C. Clemens, Professor, University of Utah 
Member at large: 

John C. Polking, Professor, Rice University 

2000 Organizers: 

Avi Wigderson, Professor, School of Mathematics, Institute for Advanced Study 

Steven Rudich, Professor, Carnegie-Mellon University 
Editor, Lecture Series 

David R. Morrison, Professor, Duke University 
High School Teachers Program: 

James R. King, Professor, University of Washington 

Susan Addington, Professor, California State University, San Bernardino 
Cynthia Hays, Secondary Mathematics Specialist, Austin Independent School 
District (in memoriam) 
Mathematics Education Research Program: 

Joan Ferrini-Mundy, National Research Council 

Timothy Kelly, Professor, Hamilton College 
Recruitment: 

Nathaniel Whitaker, Professor, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 
Research Program: 

John Morgan, Professor, Columbia University 
Women's Program: 

Chuu Lian Terng, Professor, Northeastern University 

Karen Uhlenbeck, Professor, University of Texas, Austin 
Undergraduate Faculty Program: 

Daniel Goroff, Harvard University 
Undergraduate Program: 

Robert L. Bryant, Professor, Duke University 

New members of the Steering Committee in 2001: 

Research Program: Karl Rubin, Professor, Stanford University 

2001 Graduate Summer School/Research Program Organizers: Daniel S. Freed, Professor, 
University of Texas, Austin; David R. Morrison, Professor, Duke University; Isadore 
Singer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

Undergraduate Program: Roger Howe, Professor, Yale University; William Barker. Pro- 
fessor, Bowdoin College 



114 



The Mentoring Program for Women in Mathematics was held May 30-June 9 at the 
Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. The program, organized by Chuu Lian Terng, 
Professor, Northeastern University and Karen Uhlenbeck, Professor, University of Texas, 
Austin, had 36 registered participants from the fields of mathematics and computer 
science. In addition, many of the lectures and seminars were attended by mathematicians 
from the local area. The topic of the Women's Program undergraduate course was Com- 
putational Complexity Theory; the graduate course for the Women's Program was in the 
related subject of cryptography. 

Joan Feigenbaum from AT&T organized the graduate course. Tal Malkin and Rebecca 
Wright, also from AT&T, assisted her in giving the lectures. Yael Gertner, a graduate 
student in computer science at the University of Pennsylvania, ran the graduate problem 
session. The graduate course covered basic ideas and applications and could be followed 
by all the participants. 

The undergraduate course on computational complexity theory was given by Judy Gold- 
berg from the computer science department at the University of Kentucky, with the assis- 
tance of Sara Mocas from Portland State.University. The course was attended by all par- 
ticipants, including the graduate students (except those who chose to concentrate only 
on cryptography). The core group of students who followed the course read papers and 
gave presentations during the last two days. 

Also included in the program were a research seminar, presenting work from many areas 
of computer science and algebra, and a participant seminar of expository papers. 

Three colloquium-style lectures were given. Maria Klawe, University of British Colum- 
bia, spoke on designing software for middle school math education, Lenore Blum of 
Carnegie Mellon University gave an introduction to the ideas of real complexity, and Avi 
Wigderson, of the Institute for Advanced Study and the organizer of the PCMI summer 
program, gave an overview of complexity theory which tied into both the undergraduate 
and the graduate courses. 

The Women-in-Science Seminar, organized by Karen Uhlenbeck, had two discussion 
sessions. In one, the participants introduced themselves and spoke about their present 
concerns; in the second, specific problems of women-in-science, especially competition, 
were discussed. Two seminars featured visitors Maria Klawe and Lenore Blum, who 
offered advice and practical information. Karen Collins, a computer science professor 
from Wesleyan University, Connecticut, discussed the early history of computer 
science, and a panel of local women professors dealt with balancing research, teaching 
and service. Judy Goldsmith organized a session for participants to practice job inter- 
views. Throughout the program, there were many discussions about the differences 
between research in academia and industry. 

Because the students from computer science and mathematics at all levels were involved 
in the same mathematical undertaking, there was a great deal of formal and informal 
mentoring within the scientific program. The mixture of computer science and mathe- 



115 



Institute for advanced study 



matics students, and the sttength of the students who chose to participate in this inter- 
disciplinary program resulted in a program of great scientific depth. 

Lectures and Seminars: 

Undergraduate Lectures Series: Foundations of Computational Complexity, Judy Goldsmith, 
University of Kentucky, and Sarah Mocas, Portland State University. 

Graduate Lectures Series: Cryptographic Complexity Theory, Joan Feigenbaum, AT&T 
Research, Rebecca Wright, AT&T Research, Tal Malkin, AT&T Research: Computa- 
tional Difficulty, Computational Indistinguishability , Introduction to Encryption; One-way 
Functions and Pseudmandom Generators, Definitions and Examples; Public-key Encryption 
(all by Rebecca Wright); Man}, But Not All, Cryptographic Concepts Are Equivalent To 
One-way Functions; Interactive Proof Systems and Zero-knowledge; Secret Sharing (all by 
Joan Feigenbaum); Private Information Retrieval (Tal Malkin). 

Research seminar titles: Graph Theory (Open) Problem About the Hypercube, Karen 
Collins, Wesleyan University; Computational Complexity of Generalized Pattern Matching, 
Christine Heitsch, University of California, Berkeley; Glomming Things Together is Hard, 
Judy Goldsmith, University of Kentucky. 

Participant seminar titles: 

De/iinition and Uses of the Ideal Class Group, Grisha Stewart, Bryn Mawr College; Egyptian 
Mathematics and Solving Number Theory Problems, Ana Vasiliu, Oklahoma State Univer- 
sity; The Baues Problem (What Children's Puzzles Have To Do With Algebraic Geometry) , 
Diana Maclagan, University of California, Berkeley. 

Women in Science Seminar titles: 

Is Being A Woman In Math (Or Computer Science) Really Different? discussion led by Karen 
Uhlenbeck, University of Texas, Austin; The Early History of Computer Science, Karen 
Collins, Professor, Wesleyan University; Panel Discussion Dividing the Pie: Division of 
Research, Teaching, and Service Commitments at Academic Institutions. Organized by Pro- 
fessor Lisa Traynor of Bryn Mawr College and Professor Antonella Grassi of University 
of Pennsylvania, panelists: Alice Chang of Princeton University, Lisa Fastenberg of 
Yeshiva University, Lisa Traynor, and Antonella Grassi. 

Planning Committee 

The Women's Program Committee assists the organizers in planning and promoting the 
program and recruiting lecturers and participants. Members include: Alice Chang, 
Professor, Princeton University; Ingrid Daubechies, Professor, Princeton University; Joan 
Feigenbaum, AT&T Research; Antonella Grassi, Professor, University of Pennsylvania; 
Nancy Hingston, Professor, The College of New Jersey; Rhonda Hughes, Professor, Bryn 
Mawr College; Robert MacPherson, Professor, Institute for Advanced Study; and Lisa 
Traynor, Professor, Bryn Mawr College. 



116 




T 



he Institute is a scholar's paradise. I hope it remains so. 
I am privileged to have been a Member." 

— Member, School of Historical Studies 



To the right of Wolfensohn Hail u Simor™ Hall, home of the School of Mathematics. 



INDEPB KEPORT 

The Board of Trustees, 

Institute for Advanced Study - 

Louis Bamberger and Mrs. Felix Fuld Foundation 

We have audited the accompanying balance sheet of Institute for Advanced Study - 
Louis Bamberger and Mrs. Felix Fuld Foundation (the "Institute") as of June 30, 2000 and 
the related statements of activities and cash flows for the year then ended. These finan- 
cial statements are the responsibility of the Institute's management. Our responsibility is 
to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit. The prior year 
summarized comparative information has been derived from the Institute's June 30, 1999 
financial statements, and in our report dated September 30, 1999, we expressed an 
unqualified opinion on those financial statements. 

We conducted our audit in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the 
United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit 
to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of mater- 
ial misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the 
amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the 
accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as 
evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audit pro- 
vides a reasonable basis for our opinion. 

In our opinion, such financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the finan- 
cial position of the Institute at June 30, 2000 and the changes in its net assets and its cash 
flows for the year then ended in conformity with accounting principles generally accept- 
ed in the United States of America. 




Y J^eA/U L-L-f 



September 20, 2000 



119 



Institute for advanced study 



BALANCE SHEET 

JUNE 30, 2000 (WITH COMPARATIVE TOTALS FOR 1999) 



ASSETS 

CASH 

INVESTMENTS - Held hy Trustees (Note B) 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

GOVERNMENT GRANTS AND 
CONTRACTS RECEIVABLE 

ACCRUED INCOME ON INVESTMENTS 

PREPAID AND OTHER ASSETS 

CONTRIBUTIONS RECEIVABLE - NET (Note M) 

UNAMORTIZED DEBT ISSUANCE EXPENSE 

LAND, BUILDINGS AND IMPROVEMENTS, 
EQUIPMENT AND RARE BOOK 
COLLECTION - NET (Note C) 

INVESTMENTS (Note B) 

TOTAL ASSETS 



2000 


1999 


$ 746,898 


$ 2,678,020 


6,368,517 


14,310,456 


249,764 


236,944 


1,017,761 


1,334,918 


1,479,613 


1,528,916 


422,840 


484,768 


1,283,664 


1,433,660 


680,447 


729,237 


40,527,807 


36,606,666 


372,634,749 


345,027,767 


$425,412,060 


$404,371,352 



to financial statements. 
120 



FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



LIABILITIES AND FUND BALANCES 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 
AND ACCRUED EXPENSES 

REFUNDABLE ADVANCES (Note F) 

TRUST FUND OBLIGATIONS 

NOTE PAYABLE (Note C) 

ACCRUED INVESTMENT 
MANAGEMENT FEES 

LONG-TERM DEBT (Note D) 

Total liabilities 

NET ASSETS: 

Unrestricted 

Temporarily restricted (Note J) 

Permanently restricted (Note J) 

Total net assets 

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS 



2000 



1999 



$ 8,537,727 


$ 8,636,939 


4,787,827 


4,419,414 


2,769,922 


1,998,718 


1,087,671 


1,140,907 


1,017,270 


3,041,528 


41,466,859 


42,389,367 


59,667,276 


61,626,873 


244,176,515 


233,210,268 


28,563,649 


23,756,682 


93,004,620 


85,777,529 


365,744,784 


342,744,479 


$425,412,060 


$404,371,352 



121 



Institute for advanced study 



STATEMENT OF ACTIVITIES 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 2000 (WITH COMPARATIVE TOTALS FOR 1999) 



UNRESTRICTED 



REVENUES, GAINS AND OTHER SUPPORT: 
Private contributions and grants $ 1,357,528 

Government grants 

Income on long-term investments 9,053,835 

Net realized and unrealized gains and (losses) 

on long-term investments (includes 

$3,911,854 and $2,287,244 in unrealized losses 

in 2000 and 1999, respectively) 1 5,430,489 

Gain on sale of capital assets 162,037 

Net assets released from restrictions - satisfaction of 

program restrictions 13,241,227 

Total revenues, gains and other support 39,245,1 16 



EXPENSES AND LOSSES: 

School of Mathematics 5,998,078 

School of Natural Sciences 5,316,261 

School of Historical Studies 4,205,045 

School of Social Science 2,238,971 

Libraries and other academic expenses 4,748,689 

Administration and general 5,525,697 
Auxiliary activity - tenants' housing expenses, 

net of unrestricted revenue $195,403 246,128 

Total expenses and losses 28,278,869 



CHANGES IN NET ASSETS 10,966,247 

NET ASSETS, BEGINNING OF YEAR 233,210,268 

NET ASSETS, END OF YEAR $244,170.5 IS 



See notes to financial statements. 

122 



FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



2000 



PERMANENTLY TOTAL TOTAL 

RESTRICTED 2000 1999 



$ 6,580,006 $ 11,211,026 $ 4,512,233 

3,790,775 4,504,217 

13,316,479 11,400,861 



647,085 22,798,857 6,062,441 

162,037 847,019 



7,227,091 51,279,174 27,326,771 



5,998,078 4,984,500 

5,316,261 5,046,766 

4,205,045 3,488,977 

2,238,971 2,087,799 

4,748,689 4,239,203 

5,525,697 5,189,554 

246,128 356,197 



- 28,278,869 25,392,996 

7,227,091 23,000,305 1,933,775 

85,777,529 342,744,479 340,810,704 

$93,004,620 $365,744,784 $342,744,479 



123 



Institute for advanced study 



STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 2000 (WITH COMPARATIVE TOTALS FOR 1999) 

2000 1999 
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES: 

Change in net assets $23,000,305 $ 1,933,775 

Adjustments to reconcile change in net assets to 
net cash used in operating activities: 

Depreciation 2,479,525 2,055,693 

Decrease in accrued income 49,303 321,262 

Decrease in accounts and giants receivable 304,337 539,207 

Decrease in contributions receivable 149,996 854,857 

(Decrease) increase in accounts payable (99,212) 1,458,898 

Decrease (increase) in prepaid and other assets 61,928 (194,634) 

Increase in refundable advances 368,413 1,770,221 

(Decrease) increase in accrued management fees (2,024,258) 1,836,755 

Contributions restricted for long-term investments (7,753,013) (1,652,470) 
Net realized and unrealized gains on 

long-term investments (22,798,857) (6,062,441) 

Gain on sale of capital assets (162,037) (847.019) 

Net cash (used in) provided by 

operating activities (6,423,570) 2,014,104 



CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES: 

Proceeds from sale of capital assets 2,389,680 2,729,304 

Purchase of capital assets (8,628,309) (16,881,223) 

Proceeds from sale of investments 181,766,108 208,526,124 

Purchase of investments (188,032,433) (208,182,147) 

Net cash used in investing activities (12,504,954) (13,807,942) 

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES: 
Proceeds from contributions restricted for: 
Investment in endowment 
Investment in plant 
Investment subject to annuity agreements 

Other financing activities: 
Increase in trust fund obligations 
Decrease in unamortized debt issuance expense 
(Decrease) increase in long-term debt 
Decrease in notes payable 
Decrease in investment receivable-bond issue 

Net cash provided by financing activities 

NET (DECREASE) INCREASE IN CASH 
CASH, BEGINNING OF YEAR 
CASH, END OF YEAR 
SUPPLEMENTAL DATA: 
Interest paid 



6,123,952 

387,806 

1,241,255 

7,753,013 


933,098 

183,115 

536,257 

1,652,470 


771,204 

48,790 

(922,508) 

(53,236) 

9.400.139 

9,244,389 


407,004 
49,902 
13,232 

(52,187) 
12,357.458 
12,795,409 


16,997,402 


14,447,879 


(1,931,122) 


2,654.04 1 


2,678,020 


23,979 


* 746.898 


$ 2,678,020 


$ 2,439,783 


$2362.599 



Sec N< xi's t> 1 financial itatemetus. 
124 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 
YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 2000 

A. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES 

The Institute for Advanced Study (the "Institute"), an independent, private institution 
devoted to the encouragement, support, and patronage of learning, was founded in 1930 as 
a community of scholars where intellectual inquiry could be carried out in the most favor- 
able circumstances. 

Focused on mathematics and classical studies at the outset, the Institute today consists of 
the School of Historical Studies, the School of Mathematics, the School of Natural 
Sciences, and the School of Social Science. Each School has a small permanent faculty, 
and some 180 fellowships are awarded annually to visiting members from other research 
institutions and universities throughout the world. 

The objectives of the Institute were described as follows in the Founders' original letter to 
the first Trustees: "The primary purpose is the pursuit of advanced learning and explo- 
ration in fields of pure science and high scholarship to the utmost degree that the facilities 
of the institution and the ability of the faculty and students will permit." 

Basis of Presentation - The accompanying financial statements are prepared on the 
accrual basis and are presented in accordance with recommendations contained in Not-for- 
Profit Organizations issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. 
Certain prior year amounts presented for comparative purposes have been reclassified to 
conform to the current year presentation. 

Use of Estimates - The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally 
accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions 
that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets 
and liabilities at the date of the financial statements. Estimates also affect the reported 
amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ 
from those estimates. 

Fund Accounting - The accounts of the Institute are maintained in accordance with the 
principles of "fund accounting." This is the procedure by which resources for various pur- 
poses are classified for accounting and reporting purposes into funds that are in accordance 
with activities or objectives specified. Separate accounts are maintained for each fund; 
however, in the accompanying financial statements, funds that have similar characteristics 
have been combined into net asset classifications. 

Fund balances restricted by outside sources are so indicated and are distinguished from 
unrestricted funds allocated or designated to specific purposes by action of the governing 
board. Externally restricted funds may only be utilized in accordance with the purpose 
established by the grantor of such funds. In contrast, the governing board retains full con- 
trol over unrestricted funds to be used in achieving any of the Institute's objectives. 

True endowment funds are subject to the restrictions of the gift instruments which require 
that the principal be invested in perpetuity; only income earned and gained on such funds 



125 



Institute for advanced study 



may be utilized. Quasi-endowment funds have been established by the governing board to 
function as endowment funds and any portion of these funds may be expended. Unre- 
stricted quasi-endowment funds have no external restrictions. However, certain of these 
funds have been internally designated to support specific needs of the Institute. 

All gains and losses arising from the sale, collection, or other disposition of investments 
and other noncash assets are accounted for in the fund which owned such assets. Ordm,ir\ 
income earned on investments and receivables is generally accounted for in the fund own- 
ing such assets. However, unrestricted income earned on investments of endowment and 
similar funds is accounted for as revenue in unrestricted operating funds, and restricted 
income is accounted for as deferred restricted revenue until used in accordance with the 
terms of the restriction or transferred to endowment and similar funds. 

Plant Assets and Depreciation - Proceeds from the sale of plant assets, if untestricted, are 
transferred to operating funds, or, if restricted, to deferred amounts restricted for plant 
acquisitions. Depreciation is provided over the estimated useful lives of the respective 
assets on a straight-line basis (buildings and capital improvements 20-40 years, equipment 
3-6 years). Interest expense, net of related interest income, is capitalized on construction 
in progress of qualifying assets. 

B. INVESTMENTS 

Effective July 1, 1996, the Institute adopted the provisions of Statement of Financial 
Accounting Standards No. 124, "Accounting for Certain Investments Held by Not-for- 
Profit Organizations" ("SFAS No. 124"). SFAS No. 124 requires that investments in 
equity securities with readily determinable fair values and all investments in debt securi- 
ties be reported at fair value with gains and losses included in the statement of activities. 
Previously, investments purchased by the Institute were recorded at cost; investments 
received by gift were recorded at the fair market value at the date of donation 

Endowment and similar funds investments at June 30, 2000 are comprised of the following; 

REPORTED FAIR 

VALUE VALUE 
Pooled investments: 

Equity securities $202,628,143 $238,241,270 

Debt securities 156,894,202 159,813,207 
Mortgages 

from faculty and stafl 3,082,363 J.082363 

Investment accounts receivable 9,954,986 9,954,986 

Total pooled investments 372,559,694 411,091,826 

Funds invested separately: 
Equity securities 75,055 112,788 

[otal $372,634,749 $411,204,614 



126 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



Marketable debt and equity securities are carried at market value. Realized gains and losses 
are computed based on the average cost of the investment. Fair values are determined 
utilizing fair market prices. 

Equity securities include the Institute's interests in certain limited partnerships with a 
reported value of approximately $142,718,000 and a fair value of approximately 
$148,558,250 at June 30, 2000. The Institute accounts for these investments under the 
equity method and, accordingly, recognizes its proportionate share of ordinary income and 
net realized gains attributable to the investments of the partnerships. The Institute's pro- 
portionate share of ordinary income and net realized gain was $3,963,634 and $18,321,672, 
respectively, for the year ended June 30, 2000. 

In addition, equity securities include the Institute's interests in three open-ended invest- 
ment funds (the "Funds") incorporated in the Cayman Islands with carrying values of 
$59,910,113 and fair values of $89,683,018 at June 30, 2000. The Institute accounts for 
these investments at the lower of cost or market value. Fair value is determined as the 
number of shares held by the Institute multiplied by the net asset value for such shares. 
Net asset value, as determined by the Funds, reflects the underlying assets held by the 
Funds and any investment gain or loss. Realized gains and losses are computed based on 
the actual cost of the investment, 

The Institute's interests in limited partnerships and Funds represent 38.3% and 16.1%, 
respectively, 54.4% collectively of total investments held by the Institute at June 30, 2000. 
These instruments may contain elements of both credit and market risk. Such risks 
include, but are not limited to, limited liquidity, absence of regulatory oversight, depen- 
dence upon key individuals, emphasis on speculative investments (both derivatives and 
nonmarketable investments) and nondisclosure of portfolio composition. 

Substantially all of the assets of endowment and similar funds are pooled with each indi- 
vidual fund subscribing to or disposing of units on the basis of the market value per unit, 
determined on a quarterly basis. 



127 



Institute for advanced study 



The following table summarizes the investment return and its classification in the statement 
of activities for the year ended June 30, 2000: 

TEMPORARILY PERMANENTLY 

UNRESTRICTED RESTRICTED RESTRICTED TOTAL 
Dividends and 

interest $ 9,053,835 $ 4,262,644 * $ 13,316,479 

Realized gam on 
investments 
reported at 
fair value $2,572,002 $ 263,654 $971,987 $ 3,807,643 

Realized gain (loss) on 
investments reported 
at other than fair 
value 15,470,657 7,757,313 (324,902 ) 22,903,068 

Total realized gain 18,042,659 8,020,967 647,085 26,710,711 

Change in 
unrealized loss (2,612,170) (1,299,684) : (3,911,854) 

Total realized and 
unrealized gain $15,430,489 $6,721,283 $ 647,085 $ 22,798,857 

Investments, beginning of year $ 345,027,767 

Investment purchases 186,574,233 

Investment sales (181,766,108) 

Investment returns: 
Realized gains $ 26,710,711 

Unrealized losses (3,911,854 ) 

Total return on investments 22,798,857 

Investments, end of year S 372.fr34.749 

Investments, beginning of year $345,027,767 

< rifts available for investment: 

Gifts creating a permanent endowment fund 6,580,006 

Gifts creating a temporary endowment fund 714,172 

Gifts for tmst funds 1,241,255 

Investment returns: 

Dividends and interest $ 13,316,479 
Realized gains 26,710.711 

I Inrealized losses (3,911,854 ) 

Total return on investments 3o.i 15,336 

Amounts appropriated for current operations ili\, ^>. s -0* 

Annuity mi-.! income payment (304,967) 

Investments, end of yeai 5 372.0 34., 4° 



128 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



The participation in the pool and ownership of the other investments at June 30, 2000 
is shown in the table below: 

Permanently restricted net assets $ 93,929,787 

Temporarily restricted net assets 29,875,295 

Unrestricted net assets 248,829,667 

$372,634,749 

Short-term investments represent the balance of the proceeds from the 1997 NJEFA 
bonds that have not yet been expended for construction purposes. These funds are being 
held in trust by The Bank of New York. Such funds are invested in U.S. Government 
obligations with maturities of less than one year. At June 30, 2000, the market value of 
such securities approximates their carrying value. 

C. PHYSICAL PLANT 

Physical plant and equipment are stated at cost at date of acquisition, less accumulated 
depreciation. Library books, other than rare books, are not capitalized. 

A summary of plant assets at June 30, 2000 follows: 

Land and improvements $ 1,043,307 

Buildings and improvements 54,851,118 

Equipment 14,983,456 

Rare book collection 203,508 

Joint ownership property 921,717 

Total 72,003,106 

Less accumulated depreciation (31,475,299) 

Net book value $40,527,807 

During 1997, the Institute entered into a Deed of Pathway and Conservation Ease- 
ment (the "Easement") whereby the Institute has received $11,794,600 in cash and 
$1,274,196 in contributions receivable at June 30, 1997, in consideration for the sale 
of land development rights for certain Institute properties. The Easement requires 
that those properties, set forth therein, be preserved to the greatest extent possible in 
their existing natural, scenic, open, wooded, and agricultural state and be protected 
from uses inconsistent therewith. 

Of the $11,794,600 in cash received by the Institute, $5,625,000 represents monies 
received from the New Jersey Green Acres Fund to be repaid by the parties to the Ease- 
ment. The Institute's pro rata share of $1,087,671 has been recorded as a note payable 
in the accompanying statement of financial position at June 30, 2000. The note payable 
bears interest at a rate of 2% and requires semi-annual payments through January 8, 
2017. 



129 



Institute for advanced study 



The note is payable as follows at June 30, 2000: 

2001 54,306 

2002 55,397 

2003 56,511 

2004 57,647 

2005 58,805 
Through 2017 805,005 

Total $1,087,671 

D. LONG-TERM DEBT 

A summary of long-term debt at June 30, 2000 follows: 

Series F 6k G 1997 - NJEFA $41,920,000 

Less unamortized bond discount (453,141) 

Total long-term debt $41,466,859 

Interest expense on long-term debt for the year ended June 30, 2000 was $2,108,130. 



In November 1997 the Institute received proceeds of the New Jersey Educational 
Facilities Authority offering of $16,310,000 Revenue Bonds, 1997 Series F and 
$26,565,000 Revenue Bonds, 1997 Series G of the Institute for Advanced Study Issue. 
A portion of the proceeds ($16,969,355) was used to retire the existing Revenue Bonds, 
1991 Series. The remainder of the proceeds is to be used for renovation of members 
housing, construction of a new academic building, and additional capital projects. 

The bonds bear interest at rates ranging from 4% to 5%, payable semi-annually, are sub- 
ject to redemption at various prices and require principal payments and sinking fund 
installments through July 1, 2028. The obligation to pay the Authority on a periodic 
basis, in the amounts sufficient to cover principal and interest due on the bonds, is a 
general obligation of the Institute. 

The bonds are repayable as follows at June 30, 2000: 

2001 $ 1,140,000 

2002 1.1^)5,000 

2003 1,250,000 

2004 1,310,000 

2005 M 7 5,000 
Through 2028 35,650,000 
Total $41,920,000 



130 



Notes to financial statements 



E. PENSION PLANS AND OTHER POST RETIREMENT BENEFITS 

Separate voluntary defined contribution retirement plans are in effect for faculty members 
and eligible staff personnel, both of which provide for annuities which are funded to the 
Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association and/or the College Retirement Equities 
Fund. Contributions are based on the individual participants' compensation in accordance 
with the formula set forth in the plan documents on a nondiscriminatory basis. Contribu- 
tions for the year ended June 30, 2000 totaled approximately $1,131,750. 

In addition to providing pension benefits, the Institute provides certain health care and life 
insurance benefits for retired employees and faculty. Substantially all of the Institute's 
employees may become eligible for these benefits if they meet minimum age and service 
requirements. The Institute accrues these benefits over a period in which active employ- 
ees become eligible under existing benefit plans. 

The components of the periodic expense for these postretiremen! benefits for 2000 are as 
follows: 

Postretirement Benefit Costs: 
Service Cost - benefits attributable to service during the year $ 139,436 

Interest Cost on Accumulated Postretirement Benefit Obligation 309,388 

Total $ 448,824 

The actuarial and recorded liabilities for these benefits, none of which have been funded, 
are as follows at June 30, 1996 (a recomputation of the accumulated postretirement bene- 
fit obligation as of June 30, 2000 was not performed due to the immaterial change from the 
prior measurement date): 

Accumulated Postretirement Benefit Obligation 

Retirees $1,810,053 
Fully Eligible Active Plan Participants 604,638 

Other Active Plan Participants 948,829 

Total $3.363,520 

For measurement purposes, a 13.0% Pre-62 trend rate was used for 1997 health care costs, 
with the rate decreasing ratably until the year 2006, then remaining constant at 5.50% 
thereafter. In addition, a 10.0% Post-62 trend rate was used for 1997, declining ratably to 
5.50% in 2006 and remaining constant thereafter. The health care cost trend rate assump- 
tion has a significant effect on the amounts reported. For example, a 1% increase in the 
health care trend rate would increase the accumulated postretirement benefit obligation by 
$672,501 at June 30, 1997 and the net periodic cost by $1 15,444 for the year. The weight- 
ed average discount rate used in determining the accumulated postretirement benefit 
obligation was 7.5%. 



131 



Institute for advanced study 



F. CHANGES IN DEFERRED RESTRICTED REVENUE (REFUNDABLE ADVANCES) 

Restricted receipts, which are recorded initially as deferred restricted revenue, are reported as 
revenues when expended in accordance with the terms of the restriction or transferred ti • 
quasi-endowment funds. Changes in deferred restricted revenue amounts are as follows: 

Total Deferred 
Restricted Revenue 

Balance at June 30, 1999 $4,419,414 



Additions: 

Contributions, grants, etc. 7,809,892 

Restricted endowment income 12,218,964 

Total additions 20,028,856 

Deductions: 

Funds expended from contributions, grants, etc. 7,441,479 

Funds expended from restricted endowment 6,268,760 

Quasi-endowment funds utilized 5,950,204 

Total deductions 19,660,443 

Balance at June 30, 2000 $4,787,827 

G. FUNDS HELD IN TRUST BY OTHERS 

The Institute is the residuary 1 beneficiary of a trust and, upon the death of the life tenant, 
will be entitled to receive the corpus thereof. The approximate market value of the trust's 
assets, as reported by the administrator of the trust, aggregated $4,713,800 as of June 30, 
2000, and is not included in the accompanying financial statements. 

H. FUNCTIONAL ALLOCATION OF EXPENSES 

The costs of providing the various programs and other activities have been summarized on 
a functional basis in the statement of activities and cash flows. Accordingly, certain costs 
have been allocated among the programs and supporting services benefited. The net costs 
incurred by the Institute in operating both the Dining Hall ($478,308 net of $628,267 in 
revenues) and members' housing ($1,843,328, net of $1,243,508 in revenues) have been 
allocated among the programs and supporting services benefited. An overhead charge is 
allocated to certain schools generally based upon their ability to recover such costs under 
the terms of various grants and contracts. Overhead allocated from administration and 
general expenses to various programs totaled $3,403,830 for the year ended June 30, 2000. 

Interesl expense on plant fund debt, net of interest income on short-term investments, is 
allocated CO schools based upon their occupancy of academic buildings funded with such 
debt. Allocated interest expense totaled $1,738,445 and allocated interest income totaled 
$-0- for the year ended June 30, 2000. 



132 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



I. TAX STATUS 



The Institute is exempt from Federal income taxes pursuant to Section 501(c)(3) of the 
Internal Revenue Code and is listed in the Internal Revenue Service Publication 78. 

J . TEMPORARILY AND PERMANENTLY RESTRICTED ASSETS 

The Institute reports gifts of cash and other assets as restricted support if they are received 
with donor stipulations that limit the use of the donated assets. When a donor restriction 
expires, that is, when a stipulated time restriction ends or purpose restriction is accom- 
plished, temporarily restricted net assets are reclassified to unrestricted net assets and 
reported in the statement of activities as net assets released from restrictions. 

The Institute reports gifts of buildings and equipment as unrestricted support unless explic- 
it donor stipulations specify how the donated assets must be used. Gifts of long-lived assets 
with explicit restrictions that specify how the assets are to be used and gifts of cash or other 
assets that must be used to acquire long-lived assets are reported as restricted support. 
Absent explicit donor stipulations about how long those long-lived assets must be main- 
tained, the Institute reports expirations of donor restrictions when the donated or acquired 
long-lived assets are placed in service. 
Temporarily restricted net assets are available for the following purposes: 

2000 
Academic Services: 
Educational Programs $28,563,649 

Permanently restricted net assets are restricted to: 
Investments to be held in perpetuity, the income from which is 
expendable to support academic services $93,004,620 

Net assets were released from donor restrictions by incurring expenses satisfying the 
restricted purposes or by occurrence of other events specified by donors. 



Purpose restrictions accomplished: 



2000 



Program expenses: 

School of Mathematics $3,795,795 

School of Natural Sciences 2,205,255 

School of Historical Studies 1,856,129 

School of Social Science 2,005,582 

Academic support costs: 

Libraries and other academic 2,672,215 

Computing 92,200 

Administration and general: 

Fund raising 8,616 

Tenants' housing 135,319 

Equipment acquired and placed in service 160,504 

Trust fund disbursements 309,612 

Total restrictions released $13,241,227 



133 



Institute for advanced study 



K. FUNCTIONAL EXPENSES 

The Institute provides academic services to a community of scholars, including permanent 
faculty and visiting memhers. Expenses related to providing these services are as follows: 



Expenses incurred were for: 
Salaries, wages, and benefits 
Stipends 
Honoraria 

Grants to other organizations 
Supplies and travel 
Services and professional fees 
Depreciation 
Interest 



2000 

$15,062,320 
5,055,930 
154,597 
692,414 
1,778,899 
2,982,519 
1,409,506 
1,142,684 



Total expenses $28,278,869 

L. DISCLOSURES ABOUT FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS 

The Institute is required by SFAS No. 107, "Disclosure About Fair Value of Financial 
Instruments," to disclose the estimated fair value of financial instruments, both assets and 
liabilities recognized and not recognized in the balance sheet, for which it is practicable to 
estimate fair value. 

The estimated fair value amounts in the following disclosure have been determined by the 
Institute using available market information and appropriate valuation methodologies. 
The estimates are not necessarily indicative of the amounts the Institute could realize in a 
current market exchange, and the use of different market assumptions or methodologies 
could have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. 



June 30, 2000 

Assets: 
Cash 

Investments 
Grant/Contributions Receivable 

Liabilities: 
Long-term debt 
Note payable 

The fair value of investments is based on fair market prices. The fair market valuat ion d 
grant/contributions receivable was estimated based on past cash collection experience. For 
long-term debt, the fail value- are estimated using the interest rates currently ottered for 
debt with Bimilar terms and remaining maturities. The estimated fail value of mortgages 
tor faculty and atari i- based upon similar terms at which similar institutions would provide 



Reported 
Amount 


Estimated 

Fair 

Value 


$ 746,898 

372,634,749 

2,301,425 


$ 746,898 

411,204,614 
2,301,425 


41,466.859 
1.087.671 


41.466,859 
1,087,671 



m 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



as part of an overall compensation package to such individuals. The estimated fair value 
of the note payable is based on the discounted value of the future cash flows expected to 
be received from the note. 

The fair value estimates presented are based on information available to the Institute as of 
June 30, 2000, and have not been revalued since that date. While the Institute is not 
aware of any significant factors that would affect the estimates since that date, current esti- 
mates of fair value could differ significantly from the amounts disclosed. 

M. DISCLOSURES OF PROMISES TO GIVE (CONTRIBUTIONS RECEIVABLE) 

June 30, 
2000 
Unconditional promises to give: 

Less than one year $ 1,021,792 

One to five years 315,000 

More than five years 2,000 

1,338,792 
Discount on promises to give (55,128) 

$1,283,664 



135 




HISTORICAL STUDIES- 
SOCIAL SCIENCE LIBRARY 
INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY 

PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08540